ItemRousseau, Kant, and Tolstoy at Groninger Forum Re-thinking democracy today(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2017) Danilkina, Natalia ItemTłumacz nieprzetłumaczalnego: wspomnienie o Janku Karłowskim (1962-2017)(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2017) Juchacz, Piotr W. ItemPrawo a wartości w teorii prawa Józefa Nowackiego(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2017) Tkacz, SławomirThe contents of the paper present the basic assumptions of Józef Nowacki’s theory of law. The author was a proponent of Hans Kelsen’s theory. The characteristic of Józef Nowacki’s views was the conviction that the foundations of the study of the law should be their „purity”. It is understood by him as freedom from any ideological assumption. This approach is consistently presented in his works dealing with issues of a specific nature. In the course of deliberations, the problem of the concept of law was discussed, as understood by Józef Nowacki. His works on the issues of the rule of law were also analyzed. Moreover, they presented his critical attention devoted to the jurisdiction of the Polish Constitutional Court. The conclusions highlight the validity of the author’s view that the consideration of the law should be free of any ideological assumptions. ItemAwerroes i esencjalna reinterpretacja metafizyki Arystotelesa(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2017) Kokoć, DamianQuestion of relation between an essence and an existence was one of major medieval philosophical problems. The first ones who started considerate this issue were Muslim thinkers, especially Avicenna and Averroes. The latter of them was one of the main figure in this debate. Étienne Gilson claims that on ground of Averroes’ thought Aristotle struggles with problem of existence. Averroes claimed that this two components differ only in logical manner. In reality an essence and an existence are identical and an existence is something which flows from essence of being. That is why Averroes did not agree with Avicenna that existence is only a accident of essence, because such claim is contradictory with Aristotle’s theory of being. According to this Greek thinker, all accidents can be described by one of the categories (except a category of substance which is the subject on which other categories are predicated) and an existence is not one of them. For Averroes, Avicenna‘s conception is example of contamination of Aristotle’s thought by theological components. That is why he tried to purify interpretations of Aristotle’s philosophy from this ideas, foreign to his thought. According to Averroes problem of relation between an essence and an existence is wrongly formulated because when we want explain why the being is, we must only point on it cause and we don’t need to search answer about an existence of being. ItemDlaczego sesja KMDD® jest „szyta na miarę” dla naszego mózgu? Stymulacja kompetencji moralnej z perspektywy neuropsychologicznej(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2017) Steć, MałgorzataFostering moral competence with KMDD® may give the best results thanks to be suitable for our brain and its processes. Neuropsychological research shows importance of fostering moral competence with KMDD® for dlPFC and vmPFC cooperation. It should be taken into account that brain learns moral competence due to neuroplasticity and e.g. changes in the attention processes and high moral competence makes decisions more adequate and more quick. Not „only” cognition and not „only” emotions plays role in moral processing. Research shows obvious cooperation between those levels of neuronal processing. The article aims to show the brain areas which are most important for moral decision making and recent research findings on the KMDD® impact on brain functioning. What is most important this article is a kind of a try to answer the question: why KMDD® is the best method fostering moral competence according to neuropsychology. ItemCan human and artificial agents share an autonomy, categorical imperative-based ethics and “moral” selfhood?(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2017) Nowak, EwaAI designers endeavour to improve ‘autonomy’ in artificial intelligent devices, as recent developments show. This chapter firstly argues against attributing metaphysical attitudes to AI and, simultaneously, in favor of improving autonomous AI which has been enabled to respect autonomy in human agents. This seems to be the only responsible way of making further advances in the field of autonomous social AI. Let us examine what is meant by claims such as designing our artificial alter egos and sharing moral selves with artificial humanoid devices as well as providing autonomous AI with an ethical framework modelled upon the core aspects of moral selfhood, e.g., making decisions which are based on autonomous law-giving, in Kantian terms. ItemPewność prawa jako istotna wartość państwa prawnego(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2017) Zegarlicki, JakubThe legal philosopher Gustav Radbruch regarded legal certainty as one of the three fundamental pillars of law alongside justice and purposiveness. Nowadays, legal certainty is commonly recognised as a central requirement for the rule of law – a principle which protects from the arbitrary use of the state power. Analysis of the terms ‚rule of law’ and ‚legal certainty’ encouters many difficulties because of their ambiguity. However, despite their imperfections, these and other terms which describe and create contemporary political and legal reality serve as a point of reference for the assessment of existing and newly introduced regulations. They also constitute useful criteria for the comparison of the social orders in the international community. The main aim of this article is to analyze the way that legal certainty is perceived in the literature of legal theory and in the decisions of the court. The first part of the paper is devoted to the terminological issues. The second part focuses on the two aspects of legal certainty, on the process of creation and application of law. The final part presents the arguments justifying the legal certainty which, in particular, secures individual freedom and expresses respect for the individual autonomy. ItemPolemika na temat przydatności podziału na czynności kauzalne i abstrakcyjne – wybrane zagadnienia(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2017) Nowakowski, TobiaszThe author has presented different conception of dualistic divide on causation and non-causation legal actions. The analyses focuses on need to abandon that dualistic divide. The main argument is ambiguity word of causae. Author’s view is based on polish conventional legal actions theory. It professes that each legal action has got constructional and consequential principles, which are sufficient to describe consideration of them. ItemPojęcie osób pozostających we wspólnym pożyciu – analiza dogmatyczna(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2017) Matynia, JustynaThe article is bringing up the issue of interpretative doubts associated with re-asserting the group of persons closest on land Art. 115 § 11 of the Polish penal code. The author is pointing at a number of problems which can directly be connected with notre-asserting by the legislator the discussed notion. The text contains the inspection of the hypothetical actual states of affairs, on the canvas of which the address closest to the problem of proper categorising persons acting in it as persons is probable, be as persons staying with the perpetrator in particularly a personal close rapport. The article is polemicizing with stating the part of representatives of the criminal law, that with crucial element enabling for categorising persons as staying in the cohabitation there is an existence of the economic bond. The author claims that the most important is emotional bond between two people. ItemKomparatystyczne ujęcie pojęć „wizerunek”, „utrwalanie” i „rozpowszechnianie” w ujęciu art. 23 k.c., art. 81 ust. 1 pr. aut. oraz art. 191a k.k.(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2017) Witczak, KarolinaThe terms „image”, „recording” and „dissemination” are presented in art. 191a of the Criminal Code. However, the source of these phrases derives from civil law, especially art. 23 of Civil Code and art. 81 of Act of 4 February 1994 on Copyright and Related Rights. The article author makes a comparison of these terms in view of different legal orders (criminal law order and civil law order). The purpose of such a comparative study is to show differences and similarities in the range of designatums of analyzed terms. Furthermore, this article indicates “the most effective” structure of analyzed expressions on the grounds of law in action. ItemMetoda normatywnej rekonstrukcji jako narzędzie krytyki społecznej(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2017) Byczyński, Marcin J.The main objective of this article is to introduce Axel Honneth’s method of normative reconstruction. The stages of its development will be shown—beginning from the intuitive reconstructions of empirically available social normativity up to the perspective of social criticism. Starting with Honneth’s self-criticism towards his own early methodological assumptions, I will indicate relevant factors that influenced the change in his methodological approach. Finally, I shall explain why the criticism formulated against the current stage of Honneth’s theory is mainly inadequate. ItemRhetoric of violence. On eristic methods used by Stalinist courts in the perspective of Chaïm Perelman’s theory(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2017) Pieniążek, MarcinEristic methods of the Stalinist courts are a phenomenon, on the one hand, well-documented, yet on the other hand, insufficiently explored from the theoretical perspective. They can be understood as forms of violence occurring in the language of the judicial discourse participants (judges, prosecutors), aimed at the total elimination of political opponents. The article is an attempt to characterise these methods using the conceptual instruments, developed by Chaïm Perelman and presented in the work Logique juridique. Nouvelle rhétorique and L’empire rhétorique. Rhétorique et argumentation. What weighs in favour of using Perelman’s theory are its roots in the abundant achievements of the ancient rhetoric. More importantly, however, one of the main objectives of Perelman was the development of the modern theory of legal argumentation, including judicial one. In this regard, the views of the philosopher are adopted as a counterpoint in the rhetorical analyses of the abuses of the Stalinist courts discussed on the example of the Trial of the Sixteen and the Trial of General A. E. Fieldorf „Nil”.