ItemJohann Nicolaus Tetens. Der Vergessene Kritiker von Herder und Süßmilch(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2010) Żurych, OliwiaThe objective of this article is to present the thinking of a German philosopher Johann Nicolaus Tetens with particular reference to his views on the origin of language. Tetens took a great interest in epistemology, philosophy of language, a various aspects of exact science like mathematics, physics, statistics, finances, and natural science. The great impact on his philosophical views had Locke’s and Hume’s empiricism and Leibniz’s philosophy. He is considered to have been an influence on Immanuel Kant. In the 18th century debate on the origin of language Tetens presented a contradictory approach to both most popular theories of Süssmilch and Herder. He rejected both the idea of divine origin of language and the naturalistic one, according to which language is a natural and essential physiological function of human body. Tetens deemed that humans possess predispositions typical to their species and under certain circumstances are able to create a language in the process of socialisation. ItemVom Mythos zur Ideologie – theoretische Modelle(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2010) Nurczyńska, MartaWenn auch die Ergiebigkeit der Etymologien gelegentlich in Frage gestellt wird, da man davon ausgeht, dass sie kein voraussetzungsloses Unterfangen, sondern nur Projektionen von Vor-Deutungen sind, vermögen sie trotzdem wenigstens eine Vorstellung über die Anfänge eines Begriffs zu vermitteln. So lässt uns bereits ein kurzer Blick auf den griechischen Ursprung des Wortes ,Mythos‘ feststellen, dass dieser von einer semantischen Mehrdeutigkeit nicht frei ist. Die Bedeutung des griechischen μῦθος erweist sich als komplex und vielschichtig und ist jeweils mit der Wertung des Gemeinten verbunden. Item„Wahrheit kann nicht bestehen, wenn sie nur im Subjekte gemacht wird“. Bemerkungen zum Problem von Wissen und Glauben bei Kant(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2010) Nowikow, IgorThe subject of the article is the problem of knowledge and faith in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, and its aim is to discuss the polemics against the views of this philosopher from a realistic position. Firstly, the author believes that the whole philosophy of Kant has a subjective character and this subjectivism manifests itself in both the sphere of knowledge and the sphere of faith. According to the author this fact means a serious threat to the idea of truth. Secondly, the author is of the opinion that the philosophy of Kant can not solve the problem of the fusion of knowledge and faith into a single harmonic totality. It is above all the abstract rationalism of Kant that is exceedingly doubtful and that is expressed in the absence of connections between ethics and religion on one hand and the visible world on the other hand. The problem of subjectivism and the problem of knowledge and faith suggest taking a look at a wider ideological-historical context. Hence the theology – both the protestant and the catholic one – was considered in the article, and the author takes the line that the philosophy of Kant is more that of a child of German Protestantism and Martin Luther’s theology than that of a child of catholic theology. ItemO filozofii Emmanuela Lévinasa u schyłku życia(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2010) Barszczak, StanisławEmmanuel Lévinas’ central thesis was that ethics is first philosophy. His work has had a profound impact on a number of fields outside philosophy, such as theology, Jewish studies, literature and cultural theory, and political theory. His thinking is an interpretive, phenomenological description of the repetition of the face-to-face encounter, the intersubjective relation at its precognitive core, being called by another and responding to that other. In a phenomenology it is a taking into account the experience related to free human action. Our goal is to take what is irreducible in man, that may be developed thanks to the free acts of individuals. Lévinas’ assertion of the transcendence of the face should be understood as the most telling point of departure to a respect and human responsibility. This struggle for esteem occurs in the context of different spheres of life: at work, the struggle to prevail, to protect one's rank in the hierarchy of authority; at home, relations of neighborhood and proximity. Basically, the author describes Lévinas' book titled: God, death and time. The article has four sub-sections: the transition from ontology to the thinking of transcendence, ethics and religion, the philosophy of dialogue, another and the metaphysics of Good. Since attempts to overcome the fundamental ontology, outlining the same time as the concept of an identity with the Other, the author proceeds to present Lévinas’ reflection on the face, which 'says' no transcendence, but contact with my neighbor, immanence. Specific is Lévinas’ ethics, reflected in the final a reflection of God who is "transcendent until his absence". Personal responsibility of man to man consists in the fact that God cannot cancel it. The God who hides his face and left his fair justice without a victory – this distant God – 'comes from the inside'. So what could be more imminent than Good to be entrusted. Contemporary Philosophy extents also personal skills which can be recognized by others. The question thus arises as to whether social ties refer only to struggle for recognition, or it is also a kind of goodwill based on a specific affinity for one person to another in the great human family. ItemThe Offstage of Democracy: The Problem of Social Dialogue in John Dewey’s and Walter Lippmann’s Writings(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2010) Dąbrowska, KatarzynaThe aim of this article is to present and discuss John Dewey’s and Walter Lippmann’s views on the problem of communication in a democratic society, particularly their views on the question of a role of communication in forming social processes. First part of the paper outlines the framework of this problem and its meaning to the question of possibility of democracy. Part two is concerned with anthropological and socio-political considerations: I discuss the Deweyan and the Lippmannian understanding of individual, society, intelligence and democracy. In part three I examine in detail the problem of communication, with special attention given to the questions of the role of communication in forming social processes, the foundations and conditions of communication, the debaters, and a subject matter of a debate as well as the questions of who and what forms this debate and whether we can form it altogether. ItemCzy optymistyczna ocena kondycji nauki o komunikacji w Polsce jest zasadna?(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2010) Wendland, MichałNawet nieśmiała próba podważenia optymizmu podzielanego przez licznych, często spotyka się z dezaprobatą. Podanie w wątpliwość optymizmu dotyczącego kondycji nauki o komunikacji (a przynajmniej wskazanie okazji do dyskusji nad nim), nie wynika jednak z niechęci, uprzedzenia czy „braku wiary”, a jedynie z troski o samą refleksję nad komunikacją, prowadzoną w naszym kraju przez różne grupy badaczy. ItemConstructionist Account Of Natural Language Communication In Aristotle’s Rhetoric(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2010) Domaradzki, MikołajWhile Aristotle’s metaphysics is predominantly known for its essentialism and realism, the philosopher’s rhetoric appears to challenge some of the ontological and epistemological assumptions of the fact-based approach to reality that pervade the entire Corpus Aristotelicum. The present paper Constructionist Account Of Na tural La nguage Comm unication… argues that the presence of certain “constructionist” intuitions in Aristotle’s Rhetoric results from the philosopher’s premonition that language performs various communicative functions and that, consequently, the so called “representational” can only be seen as one of them. When proposing an interpretation of those passages in which Aristotle alludes to the possibility of constructing truth and facts rather than merely presenting them, the article suggests that Aristotle’s tripartition of rhetoric be read as an anticipation of Karl Bühler’s model of language as organon, since both thinkers regard language as more than just a tool for describing reality or expressing one’s thoughts. Consequently, Aristotle’s Rhetoric departs from the ideal of truth mirroring the reality, for the philosopher is aware of the performative aspects of natural language communication. ItemListening to Anima Mundi: The Organic Metaphor in the Cosmoecological Perspective(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2010) Korpikiewicz, Honorata; Dereniowska, MałgorzataThis paper is an attempt to revise an organic epistemological approach toward nature. The sources for such a view are found in the metaphor of the Earth as a living organism, which can be traced even to ancient Greek philosophy. Drawing on the notion of cosmoecology and the Gaia-Uranus Hypothesis, we re-think and supplement the holistic perspective in environmental ethics by emphasizing the role of the embodied of nature, and by turning our attention back “from the heavens to earth”. ItemDas Männliche und das Weibliche. Aus Wilhelm von Humboldts Philosophie des Menschen(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2010) Andrzejewski, BolesławDas Ziel folgender Arbeit eine kurze Schilderung der Anschauungen des frühen Wilhelm von Humboldt. Unter diesen Anschauungen befinden sich die Ergebnisse der Erforschung verschiedener Wissensfelder, darunter die Fragen der Politik, des Rechts, des Altertums, aber auch der Ästhetik. Der frühe Humboldt hat sich auch mit der Naturwissenschaft und mit der philosophischen Anthropologie beschäftig, und diesen Bereich wollen wir im folgenden Text in Betracht nehmen, besonders aber wollen wir uns auf die Unterscheidung des menschlichen Geschlechts konzentrieren.