ItemSpis treści RPEiS 47(3), 1985(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) ItemPrawo kanoniczne a państwowy porządek prawny(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Pietrzak, MichałA question of position of canon law of the Catholic Church in the People's Poland constitutional law is discussed in the article. The theoretical and practical impact of that issue is effected by the role and function of the Catholic Church in social and political life of the country. The study concerning Polish matters is preceeded by the synthetic presentation of the system of relations between canon law and constitutional law observed in the system of connection of State and Church and in the system of separation of Church and State. This can ensure a better presentation of Polish aspects of the issue and facilitate explanation and understanding of discrepancies caused by it. The article dwells on a problem of legal grounds of legislative autonomy of the Catholic Church in the People's Poland. It is derived by the author from the constitutionally guaranteed freedom of performing religious functions and from the principle of separation of State and Church. The author focuses on the character and scope of the autonomy. He discusses a question whether the said autonomy is of an original character — independent from acts of State or is it of a derivative character effected by the positive acts of State. The conflicts between Church and State authorities on delimiting the autonomy of the Catholic Church are also presented. Much attention is being paid by the author to explaining a problem of effectiveness of norms of canon law in the public legal order. A principle of the interindependenee of canon and public law norms is precised on the grounds of practical examples. At the same time the author indicates at the importance of knowledge of canon norms for legislative organs regulating the legal situation of the Catholic Church and also deciding issues of citizens' duties. ItemStatus procesowy rodziców i opiekunów w postępowaniu w sprawach nieletnich(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Daszkiewicz, WiesławThe 1928 law of criminal procedure previously regulating proceedings in cases of juveniles did not clearly define the judicial status of parents and guardians in that proceedings. The scope of rights of those persons was considered to be narrow. They were supposed to be summoned before a court, provided that the service of the documents was not creating particular difficulties. Yet, the court was entitled to demand the obligatory appearance at the hearing, in case of evading that obligation coercive measures provided for witnesses were applied. At the trial, those persons wese vested with the right to make statements and motions. The new act of Oct, 26, 1982 bestowed those persons with the status of litigant parties and extended their rights in a considerable way. The rights of parents and guardians as parties in litigation are autonomous, resulting from the fact of a defined consanguinity or from excercising a guardianship upon a juvenile, established judicially or existing factually. They are not resulting from the statutory representation of a juvenile. Parents and guardians as the litigant parties act in their own name and not in the name of a juvenile, they do not also have to act on his behalf although they usually do so, the results of their acts do not have to concern a juvenile, as parents and guardians can act in the proceedings in their own favor. It is a different question that usually there is a commutation observed m the roles of a litigant party and a statutory representative of a juvenile whose case is under trial.Applying new judicial provisions is not simple though, as the judicial status of parents and guardiand as the litigant parties is presently determined by the three normative acts. Apart of the mentioned act of 1982 on proceedings in cases of juveniles the regulations provided in Codes of Civil and Criminal Procedure has also to be applied. Provisions of civil law procedure of nonlitigious mode are employed in case of examination and clarification proceedings, in guardian's and educational proceedings, in cases of applying medical and educational measures and partly in appeal proceedings. But if the evidence taking acts are performed by the Citizens' Militia provisions of Code of Criminal Procedure must be applied then, irrespectively of the stage and mode of the proceedings. Provisions of that Code also apply in reformatory proceedings and partly in appeal proceedings if the decision of reformatory measure is being appealed against or if the appeal demands applying that measure, as well as in criminal proceedings when it is conducted against a juvenile on exceptional bases in cases defined in the act. The detailed discussion of the scope of rights and obligations of parents and guardians in the proceedings in cases of juveniles as well as various complexities observed in the new regulation can be found in the published article. The author discusses, among the other things, the acceptable direction of parents' and guardians' acts in the proceedings in cases of juveniles, concurrence with the status of injured party, measures to be applied directly to the parents as eg. imposition of a duty to redress the damage, caused by a juvenile, burdening with costs of the proceedings, etc ItemOdpowiedzialność karna za przestępstwa prasowe(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Dobosz, IzabelaThe Press Law Act of 26 Jan. 1984 (Dziennik Ustaw nr 5 sec. 24) came to force on 1 July 1984. The long awaited act regulates in an integrated way the legal issues in the aspect of mass media. There are also provisions introduced in the scope of responsibility for press offences. Although the notion of "press offences" is not defined in the new act, but a study of the regulation, especially of art. 53 sec. 1 indicates that two categories of offences are defined by the legislator under that notion: offences committed in press and the remaining, defined in the statutory provisions, although unnamed. The discussion is basically devoted to that second category of press offences, but the first one is also present on account of the analysis of two provisions of the Press Law (art. 41 and 42) modifying the present rules of criminal responsibility. The remaining penal provisions of the new Press Act (art. 43-49) are thoroughly studied in the article and estimated from the viewpoint of their practical application. It has to be therefore stated that a number of provisions is formulated unclearly and not precisely leaving too much room for free interpretations. Parts of the regulation are taking no account whatsoever of the reality of jurnalist's work. The analysis induces to formulation of numerous critical remarks. These are concerning both formal issues and a matter of the studied provisions. A considerable penalisation of the act is the most striking feature of the Press Law, it is on the one hand visible in a substantial number of press offences defined in the act (as many as eleven) and on the other in severe sanctions for those offences. In many cases those penalties seem to be in no proportion to the offences and sometimes they are of no avail. Except of one case all the offences are publicly persecuted. On the other hand the legislator did not see the need of introducing a legal sanction in cases of some provisions which are extremely significant from the social point of view. ItemInstrumenty prawno-finansowe w gospodarce rad narodowych(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Gajl, NataliaThe advantages of financial instruments viewed as forms of exerting the influence of the center upon the local economy and of the local organs on various subordinated and non-subordinated subjects acting in the area of the councils' competence are studied in the article. The discussed problems are divided into four parts. In the first one the range of local economy being in the uptrend in the whole world is presented. The range and forms of the councils' activity are analysed against the background of the new regulation of The People's Councils Act. The forms of planning granting the councils rights to independent local planning are indicated, it is resulting from the spirit of the new act revealing trends four parts. In the first one the range of local economy being in the uptrend in to increase the independence of councils. The second part brings a study of various forms of local incomes which are constantly, for many years being unsufficient to cover needs of the councils resulting from their tasks. Various taxes defined in the new act as local are estimated from the viewpoint of their fiscality and forms of their effectiveness on a taxpayer. Unfortunatelly in that matter the councils are not vested with too many rights to grant reductions, increases etc. as it remains in the competence of the Minister of Finances. Consequently the influence of the councils in the fiscal policies is slight. It is also indicated that the activities of local eterprises has to be extended in future, as when they are established as economically strong enterprises, they can bring economic and fiscal profits to the councils. The third part is devoted to the questions of equalizing incomes which became an indispensable element in the councils' financial system. The critical study concerns some of the equalizing income constructions recently introduced, especially in cases when the immediate forms of their granting take place, in the instance of fixed portions when the participation in the extra plan income is limited to the small sum of merely 1%, similarly not obtaining profits derived from portions below 1% is covered by the central budget. This cannot influence the councils' interest in reaching higher profits nor does it increase their responsibility for lower incomes. The final, fourth part presents various forms of financing joint tasks in form of funds, taking up joint and accompanying investments etc. what can aid and finance local tasks which are not .sufficiently covered in the councils' budgets. In the conclusion of that part the authoress postulate to extend, in the future reforms, the credit and loan forms of financingi what can prove to become more justified, in face of economizing the local economy, in comparison with the unreturnable financing which can be granted in the easy way. ItemPodział spółdzielni(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Stecki, LeopoldThe Polish cooperative law of 1982 introduces new institutions, among others it is a partition of the already existing cooperative. It can be performed in that manner that a new cooperative is created from the apportioned part of the existing one while the latter is acting from then on in a curtailed structure. Any cooperative can be divided unless it is in liquidation or in bankruptcy. The cooperative is divided subject to the will of at least two thirds of its members. Consequently the grounds for division are formed by the decision of the general meeting of the cooperative members taken by the majority of two thirds of votes. In course of the partition the new cooperative is being established. Its activity is regulated by the general rules of cooperative law. It is the new particular mode of forming a cooperative. Its main characteristic trait lies in the fact that the cooperative is constituted by members of other cooperative and such will can also be manifested by persons who are not becoming members of the cooperative being established in course of the division of existing one. The decision of general meeting made in case of the cooperatives partition must include: a) denomination of the cooperative being partitioned and the cooperative being formed in course of the partition, b) the list of members leaving the partitioned cooperative for the newly created one, c) approval of the balance- -sheet of the partitioned cooperative and a draft of distribution of property elements and d) a date of the cooperative's division. Provisions of the statute of cooperative formed in course of the partition cannot curtail the property rights of its members. The decision of the general meeting concerning the partition can be appealed against according to the general rules known in the cooperative law. A right to lay an action against such decision is granted to members of that cooperative and to managing board of the competent central union. Decisions of the meeting of members moving from the partitioned cooperative to the one formed in course of the partition can also be appealed against in court. A date of cooperative partition in a legal meaning is the date of entering that event in the register. If the records of partition and of establishing new cooperatives were entered by two courts at different time, then the date of registering the forming of new cooperative is decisive in the aspect the cooperatives partition. In the effect of the partition part of members of the previously existing cooperative moves to the newly created one. The property elements indicated in the „draft of distribution" are also moved for the new cooperative, they include mobilities and immobilities, technical equipement and means of production. By virtue of the law the new cooperative takes over the duties and rights of the previous one, mentioned in the „draft of distribution". It is a case of the cumamilative transfers of debts. Two cooperatives are joint and several liable for these debts. The cooperative created in course of the division takes over the employees as well. It enters into the legal relations effected by the labor contracts concluded between those employees and the cooperative which was partitioned. ItemFunkcjonowanie samorządu załóg przedsiębiorstw państwowych w okresie przezwyciężania kryzysu społeczno-gospodarczego(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Sowiński, RomanThe author discusses in detail the posibilities of making use of the rights granted to workers of State enterprises in The State Enterprises Workers' Self- -government Act of 25 Sept. 1981 (Dziennik Ustaw Nr 24 sec. 123) and in The State Enterprises Act of 25 Sept. 1981 (Dziennik Ustaw Nr 24 sec. 122) in the situation of binding force of The Act of Special Legal Regulation in the Period of the Suspension of the State of Emergency of 18 Dec. 1982 (Dziennik Ustaw Nr 41 sec. 273) and later of The Act of the Special Legal Regulation in the Period of Overcoming the Socio-Economie Crisis of 21 July 1983. In the author's opinion the wording of the latter act became the source of numerous interpretational controversies questioning thus a possibility of the explicit decoding of the legislator's will. The doubts are particularly concerning the employed term of "dissolution of workers' self-government organ". The author studied in turn particular elements of the procedure of suspending activities of enterprise's workers' self-government organs, defined in the Act of 21 July 1983 (art. 9 sec. 2). That provision is to have a particular impact for the workers of the enterprise in case of its possible application. In the context of present conditions of self-government functioning, in the author's opinion it is not only procedure of decision making concerning the self-government organ which is essential but also a problem of responsibility for making the decision. Consequently, the author focuses on the problem of a legal character of the Commission for Workers' Self-Government which is to act on the base of the Act of 21 July 1983 by the Council of State. The present regulation is not precising the character of the above comimdssion and the interrelations between such commissions acting by the Seym, the Council of State and by the people's councils. Clarification of those issues would effect establishing the possible appeal procedures from the decision of „dissolution" the self-government organ, of "suspending" its activities and of "resumption" of its activities after the period of suspension. ItemSpółki handlu zagranicznego — próba oceny w świetle założeń reformy gospodarczej(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Zalewski, LeszekThe article is another attempt at discussing controversies concerning the fact of establishing and the legal structure of associations of capital in the Polish foreign trade. According to a circumstance that the State Treasury represented by the Minister of Foreign Trade owns at least 51°/o of shares in every company, it can be advocated that The State Enterprise Act can not be a base for constituting those companies. The controlling interest of the State Treasury effects that rules of functioning of those companies are to a large extent departing from basic regulation of the economic reform (principles of independence — self containment — of economic subjects, of forms and the scope of supervision excercised by the founding organs). De lege lata they can be established according to the rules of law only on the grounds of Commercial Code provisions. On account of incompatibility of a legal structure of the discussed companies with the essential principles of the economic reform, the assessment of rules and effects of their activity has to be performed and the advisability of stautory elimination of the indicated inconsistencies must be considered. ItemZasada samodzielności prawnej przedsiębiorstwa państwowego(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Walaszek-Pyzioł, AnnaThe article discusses the principle of legal independence of state enterprises on the grounds of regulations implementing the economic reform. The authoress made an attempt at ascertaining whether these legal provisions create grounds to formulate the principle of independence as the principle in directional meaning. Upon answering positively to that query, she sugested to understand the principle of independence as the general direction of dealings, according to which the state enterprise has the discretion to make decisions in all the matters within the scope of its activities, according to the rule of law and in order to realize all tasks of the enterprise. Numerous specific directions of activities can be derived — in the authoress opinion — from that general direction, they would be designed for the organs of state administration, (including the founding organ), the legislator, courts of justice, arbitration commissions and for the very enterprise. The authoress attempted at formulating those directions in the aspect of needs of law application. ItemKontrowersje wokół pełnomocników przedsiębiorstw państwowych(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Moskwa, LeopoldThe present article attempts at settling a question concerning sources of a legal status of attorney (agent) in the enterprise, character of a legal relation linking the enterprise with its employee in the situation when the latter performs external acts, forms of appointing an attorney and admissibility of appointing fully empowered attorneys in the enterprise. The sole sources of power of attorney in the enterprise are: declaration of will of a director and the statute (art. 97, 464 and 734 par. 2 of the Civil Code). Interpretation of art. 45 sec. 1 of The State Enterprise Act brings to the conclusion that the director is vested not only with a competence of granting power of attorney but also of selecting the attorney's person. The enterprise's employee is not authorised to perform external acts on a base of the director's mandate addressed to him within the scope of defined "internal" relation. The said employee can act only on a base of civil law power of attorney. Granting a power of attorney requires only an ordinary written form for its validity. Art. 45 sec. 2 of The State Enterprise Act is the special provision in relation to the Civil Code provisions which are voicing the principle of freedom of form (art. 73 et seq.) and to art. 99 par. 1 and 2 c.c. On the grounds of art. 45 sec. 3 of The State Enterprise Act I assume the admissibility of granteeng all the three types of power of attorney by the state enterprise. In particular it is permissible for the director to grant a general power of attorney. ItemZagadnienie pośredniego charakteru podatku obrotowego(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Gomułowicz, AndrzejThe turn-over tax payed formally by the units of socialized economy is a typical indirect tax burdening population incomes at the moment of their spending. It is thus a form of taxating a public consumption. The Act of Taxating the Units of Socialized Economy of 26 Feb. 1982 provides in the art. 16 that "rates of turn-over tax are of a price creating character and they are accounted for as a calculating element of the product price". The tax is therefore embeded in the price of performance and taxation of the turn-over of units of socialized economy is actually burdening the consumer. The way the turn-over tax rates are formed suggests that in reality it is the most commo'n tax imposed on public. Its range on account of the systematically extended subject of taxation is incomparable with any other tax levied from the public. The annual increase of the budgetary income on account of the turn-over tax revenues is equal to the increase of taxation of the public consumption since that tax is recognized to be indirect. The turn-over tax can become the obstacle in a systematic growth of the public living standard, it is therefore necessary to formulate a postulate intended for the socio-economic policy makers that the execution of the fiscal function of turn-over tax cannot hinder individual interests of the consumers, the actual payers of that tax. ItemMiasta jako centralne ośrodki rynku w Polsce południowo-wschodniej(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Szromnik, AndrzejThe article is the discussion of the results of study of market spatial structure in the South-Eastern Poland in the cross-section of urban settlement units. The author adopts a premise that the structure is each time delimited by a system of spatial interactions between main centres of concentration of the socio-economic life. Identification of a hierarchical structure of cities on a base of main characteristics of developement of commercial activity became a leading trend in the studies. Utilisation of the "rank-size" rule to delimit hierarchicality of market centres structure was suggested on the background of the exhaustive statistical and cartographic description of the market area. On the ground of the classical rule of detail gravitation, the hypothetical areas of market influence of the voivodship cities of the South-Eastern Poland were delimited. ItemPozycja i funkcje planistyczne dyrektora przedsiębiorstwa w warunkach reformy gospodarczej(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Dąbrowski, ZdzisławThe article attempts at defining position and planner functions of the State enterprise director which have to be better developed in the effect of the economic reform and in particular through the realization of its in-coming model postulates. The discussion is preceeded by the short characterization of new planistic conditioning of an enterprise formed by the radically changed — in relation to the traditional systematic solutions — shaping of the substance and structure of the plan, mode and procedure of its elaboration, integration of the enterprise plan with the central and local ones. Creating a wide ranging planistic independence (in both current and the long-run aspect) and a parametric mechanism of planistic activities, the economic reform calls for a replacement of a administrational and executive model of a director with the one of political and manager, i.e. the profound change in the role and the situation of the planner function of the director. Generally speaking, all mental processes and planner acts of the director concerning the short and the long-run activities of the enterprise can be reduced to the tree principal functions: namely inspiring, coordinating and supervising ones. The inspiring function is to occupy the central position among the other, while the remaining functions are the necessary supplement to the first one, yet they gain in their weight as the inspiring function becomes more exposed and autonomous. The planner position of the director should also be increased by granting the director the status of autonomous and strongly situated planning organ, which growing role is imposed on the system of relations: director — managing collective, workers' self-government and founding organs. ItemWpływ działalności przedsiębiorstw na stan rynku dóbr konsumpcyjnych(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Sołtysiak, JanStrategies of the trade enterprises' activities in the old economic and fiscal system were dominated by the resultant effects of the economic units producing consumption goods. Trade, distributing products among the consumers, generated ineffectiveness relations independent from producers by its own actions. That process was clearly manifested in the mechanism of self inducing and self consolidation of market disequilibrium. The trade apparatus was interested in realization of economic targets allowing maximization of employees' incomes and not improving effectiveness relations. At the same time profits, costs and marigin were adjusted in order to fufill directively fixed economic tasks. Introduction of new economic principles into our economy was intended to increase its effectiveness. In trade business the effects of the new system were to improve market supplies, service of customers and to influence radically the sphere of production. Yet it is apparent that new rules resulting from the existing system solutions are continuing to induce ineffectiveness reactions in trade. The trade apparatus is not interested in profits as a measure of economic effectiveness. The main subject of interest in the goods turn-over sphere is the maximization of income per one employee. No interest is revealed in the structure of sales and in the overall offer directed to the market with the account taken for consumer's interest. The latter is burdened with all consequences of ineffectiveness in the sphere of production and of trade. ItemBadania nad rodziną w poznańskim środowisku naukowym(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Wierzchosławski, StanisławFamily is a difficult and complex subject of the scientific research. It is effected by a number of reasons which are making matters difficult in the degree and range not encountered in other domains of social studies. Although the interest payed to the family by the social sciences in Poland has already a rich and long standing tradition, particular scientific disciplines have been including themselves to the studies in various periods of time. Relatively the earlies participation has been noted in anthropology and ethnography, next in sociology, demography, social psychology, economic sciences, law and recently, in ecology and medical sciences. Various scientific centeres in the country are engaged in the studies. As the research proceeds, the Poznań center is taking the leading position transforming itself gradually in the main center of studies on population microstructures in Poland. Two centrally directed problems are being coordinated in that center: of sociological research (University of Poznań) and of demographic research (Academy of Economics in Poznań). Within the structure of the latter, there is the sole Polish Bank of Information on Family and Household functioning, gathering wide resources of materials handled in three informatic systems: of past, present and future family. Upon reviewing the main trends of studies, the author attempted at estimating the present stage of studies on family in Poland. In the development of empi - rical studies our country has advanced to the head of European states, but the methodological studies, in spite of certain achievements, reveal still considerable retardation in relation to the general level of science in that field. There are substantial disproportions observed between particular scientific disciplines in the scope of improving their research devices and in the effect they are not equally participating in studies on family. Multldisciplinarity of research on family introduces several serious implications which are calling for urgent solutions. In the present stage of research developement the efforts should be directed into: 1) elaboration of principles of the most effective cooperation of numerous scientific disciplines, 2) searching for institutional solutions airned at securing the uniform material and methodological coordination of the whole studies, 3) devicing principles of the inderdisciplinary scientific synthesis for the research results, which would answer the modern stage of sciences development and the social needs. ItemZ metodologii badań nad wpływem dochodu na dzietność rodzin(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Roeske-Słomka, IwonaPopulation of families subjected to the all-Polish budgetary studies was divided into sub-populations according to the level of education obtained by the household head, duration of marriage and a character of inhabited locality. On the ground's of the regression analysis, the thesis was formulated that there is a relation between income and a number of children in a family which is adopting a form of multinomial third degree function. On the base of the differential calculus of those functions their extremes were established and the following conclusions were thus formulated. In sub-populations of divergent socio-demographic traits, the local minimam and maximam of the number of children are reaching various values. The ares of income changebility determining maxima of children number, in case of the families with the degree is on a much higher level in comparison with the remaining families. Areas of children number changebility in families with a degree or secondary education are more or less on the same level, yet it remains higher in relation to the corresponding changebilities in families with primary or vocational education. In course of prolongation of marriage lasting the maxima of children number are reaching higher values and they are defined by higher and higher level of income changebility, the upper limit value for the minima of children number is also increasing. Taking the inhabiting location under consideration it was noticed that the maxima and the upper limits of minima of the children number are the highest for the rural families and lower and lower in families inhabiting small towns, medium and large cities. ItemOdstępy inter genetyczne w przekrojowej analizie płodności(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Paradysz, JanReal birth intervals are traditionally examined only in the longitudinal approach and in the relation to cohorts and generations. Nevertheless it seems justified to make sometimes several queries:1) what is the time lag between the birth in a given calendar year a of a child of the p-sequence and the previous birth p— l, 2) how much time must pass between the birth p-sequence child na given calendar year a and the p+1 child born later. Such an exposition of the problem seems interesting from at least one point of view: a possibility of analysing the effect of various historical events, related closely to the defined time span, on the length of real birth intervals. Such historical events are war, economic crisis, epidemic of pest, new regulation of abortion. All those events can prolong or shorten the type 1 and 2 intervals in the succeeding calendar years. Currently, frome one year to another, only the type 1 intervals can be traced, while the calculation of the type 2 intervals takes theoretically approximately 30 years, untili the youngest of generations will complete its period of fertility. In practice that period can be substantially shortened. Those problems are not encountered in relation to the deceased populations reconstructed on the grounds of parish registers. ItemWpływ zmian wielkości rodziny oraz jej dochodów na wielkość konsumpcji żywności i prace wykonywane w gospodarstwie domowym(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Newton Morgan, JamesIn the article the author has presented the research focused on the impact of changes in family composition, size and in income on food consumption and housework in the U.S.A. in the years 1975 and 1979. The author has used interviews made in 1975, 1976, 1979 and 1980. At the beginning of the article the author has presented previous work in that field. The article presents a dynamic model based on the effects of income and its components, and of family size and composition, and of wife's paid work as exogenous variables on food consumption and housework hours. Features of a complete dynamic model, where food consumption and housework were treated as endogenous, have also been discussed. The empirical analysis has been put in a dynamic form, reducing the need to account for stable interpersonal differences. The author ha;s started with a static equilibrium model. Then the differences between 1979 and 1975 have been worked out to derive a model of changes. It has been assumed that the effects of income (values of variables have been expressed in 1979 dollars) and family members wer stable across time, and also that personal attributes or environment did not change and hence did not effect changes in food consumption. The main findings of the research have been presented in the final part of the article. Changes in the numbers of family members of different age-sex combinations have the expected effects on food consumption, correlated with well known calorieprotein requirements. Changes in family composition do effect changes in the wife's paid work hours, and those changes have in turn assymetrical effect on family food consumption. Both increases and decreases in the wife's work hours increase family food consumption. They increase it more for total food, but significantly even for food consumed at home. Changes in taxable money income have small but significant effects on food consumption, and on the fraction of it spent eating out, i.e., more effects on eating out. Transfer income from AFDC have a much larger effect on food consumption, mainly on food consumed at home. Work — related transfers have only a marginal effect increasing food consumption, but a significant effect increasing the fraction spent eating out. Inreases in imputed rent are associated with significant increases in total food but not in home food consumption or in the fraction spent eating out. Increased food stamp bonus significantly decreases the fraction spent eating out — the effect is almost entirely on home consumed food. Decreases in the food stamp bonus have much larger effects on food consumption than increases. All but one the changes in family — members types has a significant effect on housework, and they are reasonable and consistent with other estimates. Income changes have no significant effects on housework, except for changes in work — related transfers, which makes sense since unemployment or disability means more work around the house. Finally, in the line with other studies of the double time — burden on working wives, changes in the wife's paid work hours have no significant effect on housework hours. ItemSpołeczno-ekonomiczne aspekty pracy zawodowej matek w okresie rozwoju rodziny(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Szuman, AlicjaThe present work attempts at establishing and systematizing social and economic profits and costs related to the professional engagement of mothers in the period of their family development. Taking up the paid work mothers are increasing the actual family income. Yet apart the favorable financial effect for the family, the paid work of mothers is accompanied by material costs incurrecj by the household (expenses for a child-care during the work period, commuting time, necessity of additional care for the physical appearance of mothers and their children, satisfying the own increased cultural needs, additional expenses for the household managing) and by the social losses which can not be measured in pecuniary categories although they are incurred by the family and the Whole society (extensive burdening of working mothers with professional and family duties results in drawbacks in fulfilling their procreational, care and educational functions, accelerates the process of family disintegration, negatively affects the health of mothers and their children). Professional engagement of mothers creates numerous conflicts and problems which must be overcome; it is the basic task of the social policies of the State. ItemRozwód: wyzwanie wobec norm społecznych?(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1985) Kryczka, PiotrThe author tries to answer the query whether divorce is a challenge against social norms guarding the stability and indissolubility of marriage. The full and explicit answer can not be offered on account of the lack of complex research in that subject in Poland, particularly there have been no opinion polls on divorce and divorcees. The secondary analysis of the previous research and statistical data still shows the interesting trends in that field. Firstly, it can be indicated that a local control, especially in rural communities is still existing, persons making the divorce decisions must take account of it. It seems to be manifested in the relatively low divorce index in Poland (on the level of 1,1-1,2 per thousand inhabitants), and particularly in villages (0,4). Other tendencies observed are trends to isolate onself and be isolated in course of fostering marriage conflicts, accompanying propensity to create acquaintance and comrade circles constituted of divorced persons, making divorce decisions without consulting them in the closest circles, methods of rationalizing divorce decisions, the mostly quoted motives are unfaithfulness and alcoholism of the spouse, a large proportion of the divorced is taking part in religious practices (63% males and 82% females), majority of women is not concluding the second matrimony, number of suicised is fourth times higher among the divorced ete. At the same time though some symptoms can be observed indicating thai those norms started to be broken. It can be proved by the relatively high dynamics of the divorce increase in Poland (the index has risen 3-times for the last 3© years, in relation to 1950), the indexes for the big cities are 6- times higher in relation to the indexes in villages, a number of women bringing a divorce action tends to increase, too large a number of divorces among persons who received the scientific degree or gratifying the divorcees in the past with possibilities of a promotion to higher office.