Przegląd Politologiczny, 2010, nr 2


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    Samorząd w nauczaniu społecznym Kościoła
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Wójcik, Stanisław
    This paper contributes to the deliberations of a doctrinal and comparative nature. It indicates one of the sources providing for the dynamics of the evolution of self-government, the need to promote a new philosophy of self-government, and particularly emphasizes the significance of social personalism. Presentation of this issue allows better comprehension of various aspects of the ideological situation of self-government authorities and local communities.
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    Partnerstwo dla Modernizacji w stosunkach niemiecko-rosyjskich
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Koszel, Bogdan
    Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russia has become Germany’s main Central European partner. The economic interests and hopes of gigantic contracts to modernize the Russian economy have played a colossal role in German policy. The Government of Chancellor Angela Merkel aspired to shape the Eastern policy of the European Union, and it was highly favorable towards the strategy of Russian modernization to be implemented with the participation of Western partners, as proposed by President Medvedev in 2009. However, this project never went beyond the stage of preliminary agreements, and both sides are increasingly disappointed with its progress. Germany continues to aspire to play the role of the leading EU member state involved in the transformation process in Russia, yet this is no longer treated in terms of the ‘Russia first’ attitude without any reservations. Germans are becoming increasingly aware that their efforts are doomed to fail without true Russian efforts aimed at the democratization of both their public life and economic structures.
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    20 lat trzeciego sektora w Polsce – doświadczenia i perspektywy
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Cieślik, Łukasz
    Year 1989 marked a breakthrough in the presence and development of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Poland. The freedom of association was restored, and the society immediately took advantage of this freedom. Since the early 1990s, decentralization has been coupled with a revived activity of the civic sector, and a clear increase in the number of ‘grass-root’ initiatives, stimulated by the society itself. The number of NGOs has kept growing, including the associations, foundations, and church organizations. The scope of their activity, the number of employees and the tasks they undertake have been expanding. In order to understand the essence of social economy, and primarily to notice the opportunity to develop the state on the basis of the principles of social economy, it was necessary to change the definition of the essence of the state and society, their role, and to correlate their mutual objectives and needs. The administrative reform executed in Poland in 1999, resulted in moving the burden of public tasks from the central government to the units of territorial self-government. The administrative reform introduced three layers of territorial division in order to promote self-governance, facilitate the operation of local authorities, and bring them closer to citizens. Over the last twenty years, NGOs have become a valuable partner in territorial self-government by performing various kinds of public tasks and thus becoming an exceptionally significant element of social policy. The principles regulating the co-existence of the third sector and the state are laid down in the act of law of April 24, 2003 on public benefit and volunteer work, which provides a comprehensive regulation of the activity of NGOs in the realm of public life, the principles (subsidiarity, sovereignty of parties, partnership, efficiency, fair competition, and transparency), and the form of cooperation between such organizations and the organs of public administration with respect to the performance of public tasks. It should be emphasized, however, that while NGOs have taken over services rendered in some areas, their potential has not been fully utilized. The functioning of social organizations manifests civic freedom and society’s self-organization. The activities of the third sector organizations allow the fulfillment of important social needs, such as the need for spontaneous association, social initiative and organizational autonomy. The functioning of social organizations has an advantageous influence on the activity of public and private organizations. The NGOs in Poland and abroad play an increasingly significant role, both in the development of civic society of democratic states, and also in the process of performing public tasks and the development of economies. At present, forms of cooperation between NGOs and the territorial self-government are being sought. This may indicate that both local authorities and the third sector organizations have reached a point where they are ready to form a real partnership. This is an optimistic statement, especially given the opportunity to develop the sector of social economy using the financial means of the EU structural funds. Along with the ageing of affluent societies, social exclusion, poverty and unemployment are the fundamental social problems for Poland and the whole of modern Europe. The subjects of the third sector of an economy can play a key role in solving these problems.
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    Kazachstan jako obecny przewodniczący OBWE – rok 2010: nowa rola średnich państw w podejmowaniu globalnych decyzji strategicznych na podstawie konsensusu
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Sydyknazarov, Mukhit
    The paper concerns the issue of Kazakhstan presiding over the OSCE this year, and the issue of the role played by medium-sized states in the contemporary architecture of international relations. As the interests of global players continue to clash incessantly, medium-sized states are forced to make increased efforts to build a safer and more stable world. The author uses the example of Kazakhstan to analyze the role of medium-sized states, which can be compared to that played by small and medium-sized enterprises in building an efficient and stable economy. The small and medium-sized states are increasingly appreciated on an international scale in various areas. Kazakhstan is consistently working to achieve its goals, not only at present within the OSCE, but as a future head of other organizations, many of which have been established on Kazakhstan’s initiative; the country has always been distinguished by its international activity. Many of these initiatives have been successfully implemented by the OSCE itself. The above-mentioned organizations include the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA), Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC), Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), International Organization of Turkic Culture, and the Permanent Council of Ministers of Culture of the International Organization of Turkic Speaking States (TURKSOY). It is important to include the new independent states in the common ideology of the development of market economies and democratic institutions. As a regional leader in Central Asia, Kazakhstan is better prepared to implement this mission than other states. Not all Kazakhstan’s initiatives fall within a purely European framework. As the country is located at the cusp of Europe and Asia, its government pays constant attention to Euro-Asian issues, all the more so as, after its presidency of the OSCE, Kazakhstan will chair the Organization of the Islamic Conference in 2011.
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    Rywalizacja państw w kosmosie
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Stankiewicz, Wojciech
    The paper emphasizes that outer space has become an object of interest for different states relatively recently. Therefore, there is no detailed international law to regulate the activity of states in outer space. Current regulations were mainly drawn up at the turn of the 1960s, and they do not fully correspond to the reality of today. The drawing up of modern space law will be a dynamic process owing to the rapid evolution of space technology and an increasing exploration potential. As the activity of states in outer space is rapidly changing, laws to be drawn up may frequently be prepared ad hoc, in response to the newly emerging problems. It may be exceptionally difficult to enact a new convention to regulate general issues of outer space, in the way it has been done with respect to the law of the sea, as some countries (in particular the United States) may oppose the limitation of their plans to explore and utilize outer space. In order to maintain peace and balance, it may be necessary to establish a new international organization for the purpose of dealing with outer space. This organization would provide a forum to solve disputes, such as those concerning the development of satellite systems, the principles of teledetection, or armaments in space. A considerable portion of inter-state disputes concerning outer space will have to be solved by bilateral agreements, reached through a compromise, as there are no specialized organs authorized to act in the realm of outer space. A dynamically conducted exploration of outer space depends on the amount of expenditure allocated to the space programs of individual states. The amount of financing available is influenced by the economy (at the time of the slowdown that began in 2008 space agencies have had to envisage limited budgets). The prestige of space exploration is an aspect of particular importance. In order to increase its importance in the international arena, states are ready to allocate considerable means for spectacular space activities. It can be observed at present that states are increasingly competing with each other for prestige rather than for strategic purposes. This can easily be observed with respect to the developing countries, such as China and India. The pace of activities in space will be influenced by the ability of the states to cooperate. The specific nature of great space investments usually requires huge expenditure, therefore it would be advantageous to combine the financial contributions of various states. Joint projects would promote peaceful utilization of outer space.
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    Terroryzm sponsorowany przez państwa. Casus bliskowschodnich państw-sponsorów
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Wejkszner, Artur
    The point of interest in this paper is the issue of state-sponsored terrorism. The essence of this form of terrorism is the intentional (indirect or direct) support, offered by state sponsors to terrorist organizations, and the intention to let them achieve their political, strategic or tactical goals, usually concerning the citizens, governments or the territory of third-party countries. The paper presents a classification of the range of such support and concentrates on the analysis of the motives and means applied by the state sponsors. Owing to historical conditions and the range and scope of support granted, the paper uses the examples of Iran, Syria and Iraq. Only the former two states offer permanent support to terrorist organizations in the Middle East. After the collapse of Saddam Hussein’s regime, Iraqi authorities have abandoned this activity as it was actually harmful to the interests of their country.
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    Finansowanie ochrony zdrowia z funduszy strukturalnych Unii Europejskiej
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Bromber, Piotr
    Accepting the argument that the financial means dedicated to health protection are limited, the author of the paper emphasizes the need to use external sources of financing, in this case European Union structural funds. This paper attempts to answer the question of to what extent the sources from the European Regional Development Fund, and the European Social Fund, have influenced, or can influence the improved efficiency of the health protection system in Poland. The paper begins with the fundamental notions of health protection, the levels and forms of the delivery of health services, the subject range of the system (including the catalogue of beneficiaries), and the sources of finance. The most important (in the author’s opinion) current problems related to the organization and financing of health protection are also mentioned. Next, a general description of selected operating programs is presented with the examples of health protection projects financed from the structural funds that have already been implemented. The opportunities to fund these types of projects under the present financial perspective are also indicated. The subject matter of a detailed analysis presented in the paper concerns the Lubuskie province.
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    Liberalizm czy interwencjonizm? Recepta na kryzys
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Kacperska, Magdalena
    The uneven nature of market economy development is particularly visible in the historical perspective. The paper underlines the most important theoretical aspects related to business cycles, the reasons for the emergence of crises, and the practical symptoms of the cyclical development of economies. It also briefly analyzes more significant business fluctuations (crises), their reasons, nature and consequences, as well as the changing responses of the state to such crises. Market imbalance is a result of the continuous game of supply and demand, prices and numerous other factors that determine the growth of national product. The analysis of cyclical fluctuations in business over the period of the last century shows that they are unavoidable, that a period of growth is always followed by that of a fall, and that the pace and size of the former frequently determine the depth of the latter. The paper attempts to evidence that each wave results either from appropriate activity or a limitation of activity of the governments concerned. Liberalism or interventionism? What is the right prescription for a crisis? This question can be answered when we review previous crises and the ways of solving them under concrete economic, historical and social conditions. It appears that at a time when states perform an extensive range of functions for their citizens, it is unavoidable to apply some form of interventionism in a majority of situations. Whereas liberal doctrine and practice decidedly prevail on an everyday basis, in exceptional moments, such as economic crises, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, or other events that threaten the feeling of security, society allows for, or actually demands that the governments take appropriate measures. It expects that the state will offer assistance, and if it is not the state, then maybe some other organization. An economy is a living organism and – as in the case of humans – it has to care for itself to prevent illness, as prevention is always better and easier than cure. Another question arises, though – who is supposed to care for an economy and how?
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    Perspektywy i wyzwania demokracji na przykładzie liberalnego nurtu islamu
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Jędrzejczyk-Kuliniak, Katarzyna
    The religious and cultural system of Islam is not a monolith, although it cannot be claimed that there are many Islams. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the trend of religious fundamentalism has predominated in public opinion. However, this is only one of many forms of Islam. Its other extreme is the liberal one. These two religious interpretations are rather hostile towards one another, which finds reflection in the values each preaches. The movement of Islamic revival is connected with liberal thinking and it goes beyond the Arab countries. It can also be observed in Europe and the Muslim countries in Asia. Each movement is specific and tries to face up to different social and political issues. Given the deficit of democracy and the existence of authoritarian governments in the Middle East, the revival movement of the Arab world provides the best opportunity to scrutinize the challenges and development opportunities for democracy. This tendency is becoming an increasingly significant political force in the Middle East. Its representatives are also referred to as Muslim centrists, democrats or liberal Muslim reformers. They base their visions of political development on the social doctrine of Islam, stemming from the nahda movement, and from the ‘re-opening of the ijtihad’. The paper presents the values of liberal Islam, including the Muslim concept of democracy, social justice, sovereignty, freedom and the equality of women. The purpose of the paper is also to outline the main challenges related to the liberalization of Islam.
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    Determinanty bezpieczeństwa narodowego. Nowe zagrożenia – nowe wyzwania
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Bąk, Maciej
    This paper analyzes the definitions and characterizes the elements related to national security. The author pays particular attention to the change of determinants and threats which significantly influence the way in which a given state’s security is perceived, and how it evolves. In the author’s opinion, at present one can observe the tendency to expand the subject matter and spatial range of national security in international relations, which follows from the internationalization of various realms of social life. It is impossible to improve the national security of a given state while tolerating the disturbances of peace that result from the widening gaps between different parts of the world, or unsolved regional and local conflicts. The main purpose of this paper is to draw the reader’s attention to the changes resulting from the need to adjust the national security system to the new challenges; the changes that not only aim to defy these challenges, but also to prevent the factors that generate them.
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    Europejska Strategia Bezpieczeństwa 2003–2008. Analiza politologiczna
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Czachór, Zbigniew
    In 2003, the Council of Europe, the highest political organ of the European Union, resolved to adopt the European Security Strategy. This document outlined three fundamental objectives for the EU: stability and good governance in the area of the EU’s closest neighbors; creating an international order that would be based not only on bilateral relations, but primarily on efficient multilateral relations; and preventing threats, whether new or traditional. The Strategy assumed that the EU would take the responsibility for international security both in the realm of ‘peace keeping’ (peace and defensive missions) and ‘peace-making’ (peace and offensive missions). Defining the threats that the European Union needs to defy, the Strategy enumerates local conflicts, terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their potential use against the territory of the EU and its member states, collapsing states, and conflicts breaking out in such states and their neighborhood, as well as organized crime. The assessment of numerous threats to internal and external security, presented in the European Security Strategy, remains up-to-date. There have also emerged new threats for Europe that result from the need to ensure energy security, primarily with respect to the diversification of energy sources. The significance of climate change to international security has increased. The same applies to IT security or piracy. The EU has been rather anxious about the intensification of frozen conflicts, in particular the outbreak of war between Russia and Georgia. The Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs has indicated that the enlargement process is a significant stabilizing factor in the EU neighborhood. Fundamental importance is also attached to the review of cooperation principles with the USA, the crucial role of the UN in the international system, and cooperation with regional organizations, such as the African Union. There is also the need to develop a strategic partnership with NATO, in particular in terms of operational cooperation. Another key factor in the strengthening of the EU’s global position is the development of a civil and military crisis response system.
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    Frekwencja wyborcza w elekcjach samorządowych w Polsce
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Niewiadomska-Cudak, Małgorzata
    The focal point of this paper is voter turnout in the self-government elections in Poland. Particular attention is given to the turnout in the city with district rights, Łódź. This city provides an interesting place of research, both on account of its peculiar location in the center of Poland, and its recent cultural, economic and political transformation. A local referendum on the dismissal of the city mayor, held on January 10, 2010, is worth mentioning. Łódź was the first large Polish city (with a population of over 500,000) where a one-man executive organ was dismissed before the end of his term. In the paper, the results of parliamentary election turnouts are juxtaposed with self-government election turnouts. Voter turnout is analyzed for each term of the self-government in Łódź, and the types and reasons for absence are indicated. The author uses these data to emphasize that over the twenty years of self-government’s existence, voting procedures in Poland have not changed and are the most conservative in Europe.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego