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- ItemSamorząd w nauczaniu społecznym Kościoła(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Wójcik, StanisławThis paper contributes to the deliberations of a doctrinal and comparative nature. It indicates one of the sources providing for the dynamics of the evolution of self-government, the need to promote a new philosophy of self-government, and particularly emphasizes the significance of social personalism. Presentation of this issue allows better comprehension of various aspects of the ideological situation of self-government authorities and local communities.
- ItemPartnerstwo dla Modernizacji w stosunkach niemiecko-rosyjskich(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Koszel, BogdanSince the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russia has become Germany’s main Central European partner. The economic interests and hopes of gigantic contracts to modernize the Russian economy have played a colossal role in German policy. The Government of Chancellor Angela Merkel aspired to shape the Eastern policy of the European Union, and it was highly favorable towards the strategy of Russian modernization to be implemented with the participation of Western partners, as proposed by President Medvedev in 2009. However, this project never went beyond the stage of preliminary agreements, and both sides are increasingly disappointed with its progress. Germany continues to aspire to play the role of the leading EU member state involved in the transformation process in Russia, yet this is no longer treated in terms of the ‘Russia first’ attitude without any reservations. Germans are becoming increasingly aware that their efforts are doomed to fail without true Russian efforts aimed at the democratization of both their public life and economic structures.
- Item20 lat trzeciego sektora w Polsce – doświadczenia i perspektywy(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Cieślik, ŁukaszYear 1989 marked a breakthrough in the presence and development of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Poland. The freedom of association was restored, and the society immediately took advantage of this freedom. Since the early 1990s, decentralization has been coupled with a revived activity of the civic sector, and a clear increase in the number of ‘grass-root’ initiatives, stimulated by the society itself. The number of NGOs has kept growing, including the associations, foundations, and church organizations. The scope of their activity, the number of employees and the tasks they undertake have been expanding. In order to understand the essence of social economy, and primarily to notice the opportunity to develop the state on the basis of the principles of social economy, it was necessary to change the definition of the essence of the state and society, their role, and to correlate their mutual objectives and needs. The administrative reform executed in Poland in 1999, resulted in moving the burden of public tasks from the central government to the units of territorial self-government. The administrative reform introduced three layers of territorial division in order to promote self-governance, facilitate the operation of local authorities, and bring them closer to citizens. Over the last twenty years, NGOs have become a valuable partner in territorial self-government by performing various kinds of public tasks and thus becoming an exceptionally significant element of social policy. The principles regulating the co-existence of the third sector and the state are laid down in the act of law of April 24, 2003 on public benefit and volunteer work, which provides a comprehensive regulation of the activity of NGOs in the realm of public life, the principles (subsidiarity, sovereignty of parties, partnership, efficiency, fair competition, and transparency), and the form of cooperation between such organizations and the organs of public administration with respect to the performance of public tasks. It should be emphasized, however, that while NGOs have taken over services rendered in some areas, their potential has not been fully utilized. The functioning of social organizations manifests civic freedom and society’s self-organization. The activities of the third sector organizations allow the fulfillment of important social needs, such as the need for spontaneous association, social initiative and organizational autonomy. The functioning of social organizations has an advantageous influence on the activity of public and private organizations. The NGOs in Poland and abroad play an increasingly significant role, both in the development of civic society of democratic states, and also in the process of performing public tasks and the development of economies. At present, forms of cooperation between NGOs and the territorial self-government are being sought. This may indicate that both local authorities and the third sector organizations have reached a point where they are ready to form a real partnership. This is an optimistic statement, especially given the opportunity to develop the sector of social economy using the financial means of the EU structural funds. Along with the ageing of affluent societies, social exclusion, poverty and unemployment are the fundamental social problems for Poland and the whole of modern Europe. The subjects of the third sector of an economy can play a key role in solving these problems.
- ItemKazachstan jako obecny przewodniczący OBWE – rok 2010: nowa rola średnich państw w podejmowaniu globalnych decyzji strategicznych na podstawie konsensusu(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Sydyknazarov, MukhitThe paper concerns the issue of Kazakhstan presiding over the OSCE this year, and the issue of the role played by medium-sized states in the contemporary architecture of international relations. As the interests of global players continue to clash incessantly, medium-sized states are forced to make increased efforts to build a safer and more stable world. The author uses the example of Kazakhstan to analyze the role of medium-sized states, which can be compared to that played by small and medium-sized enterprises in building an efficient and stable economy. The small and medium-sized states are increasingly appreciated on an international scale in various areas. Kazakhstan is consistently working to achieve its goals, not only at present within the OSCE, but as a future head of other organizations, many of which have been established on Kazakhstan’s initiative; the country has always been distinguished by its international activity. Many of these initiatives have been successfully implemented by the OSCE itself. The above-mentioned organizations include the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA), Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC), Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), International Organization of Turkic Culture, and the Permanent Council of Ministers of Culture of the International Organization of Turkic Speaking States (TURKSOY). It is important to include the new independent states in the common ideology of the development of market economies and democratic institutions. As a regional leader in Central Asia, Kazakhstan is better prepared to implement this mission than other states. Not all Kazakhstan’s initiatives fall within a purely European framework. As the country is located at the cusp of Europe and Asia, its government pays constant attention to Euro-Asian issues, all the more so as, after its presidency of the OSCE, Kazakhstan will chair the Organization of the Islamic Conference in 2011.
- ItemRywalizacja państw w kosmosie(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2010) Stankiewicz, WojciechThe paper emphasizes that outer space has become an object of interest for different states relatively recently. Therefore, there is no detailed international law to regulate the activity of states in outer space. Current regulations were mainly drawn up at the turn of the 1960s, and they do not fully correspond to the reality of today. The drawing up of modern space law will be a dynamic process owing to the rapid evolution of space technology and an increasing exploration potential. As the activity of states in outer space is rapidly changing, laws to be drawn up may frequently be prepared ad hoc, in response to the newly emerging problems. It may be exceptionally difficult to enact a new convention to regulate general issues of outer space, in the way it has been done with respect to the law of the sea, as some countries (in particular the United States) may oppose the limitation of their plans to explore and utilize outer space. In order to maintain peace and balance, it may be necessary to establish a new international organization for the purpose of dealing with outer space. This organization would provide a forum to solve disputes, such as those concerning the development of satellite systems, the principles of teledetection, or armaments in space. A considerable portion of inter-state disputes concerning outer space will have to be solved by bilateral agreements, reached through a compromise, as there are no specialized organs authorized to act in the realm of outer space. A dynamically conducted exploration of outer space depends on the amount of expenditure allocated to the space programs of individual states. The amount of financing available is influenced by the economy (at the time of the slowdown that began in 2008 space agencies have had to envisage limited budgets). The prestige of space exploration is an aspect of particular importance. In order to increase its importance in the international arena, states are ready to allocate considerable means for spectacular space activities. It can be observed at present that states are increasingly competing with each other for prestige rather than for strategic purposes. This can easily be observed with respect to the developing countries, such as China and India. The pace of activities in space will be influenced by the ability of the states to cooperate. The specific nature of great space investments usually requires huge expenditure, therefore it would be advantageous to combine the financial contributions of various states. Joint projects would promote peaceful utilization of outer space.