ItemThe Global Pandemic of Terrorism – Another Mutation of The Terrorist Virus(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Wojciechowski, SebastianFrom the editor ItemThe Smell of Internationality. Towards a Sensual Approach to International Relations(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Gałganek, AndrzejThe tenet of this article is the conceptualisation of social multiplicity, rather than politics, being the deepest code of internationality as a property of human existence. As a consequence of that understanding of internationality, International Relations (IR) extends beyond dealing with the traditional concepts of politics and economy. All the manifestations of human activity arise in a context of social multiplicity, in which individuals are aware of paths of development separate from their own, and in which ideas, technologies and resources are constantly taken from one social environment and combined with others, in order to produce new and original results. From this perspective, IR concerns nearly everything: multiplicity and identity; multiplicity and sexuality; the interactive life of languages; structures of world literature; the unequal yet connected development of music; international relations of food and cooking; social strategies of dealing with difference, and internationality experienced through the senses. This article illustrates how olfaction is present in international relations through power relations, olfactory others, the issues of migration and asylum, olfactory travelogy and alternative cultures of smell. The analysis confirms that sensual internationality may show a new aspect in understanding relations between politically organised societies. Sensuality – sensory experience – may be a foundation for a hitherto neglected way of understanding internationality. Sensual IR enables the discipline to return to the everyday life of internationality. It helps us to experience internationality and to dispose of the dominant belief in IR that internationality cannot be seen, or that we do not know where its “inter” is located or what it is. ItemThe Analysis of Turkish Foreign Policy in Syria: A Neoclassical Realist Perspective(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Karaca, Bilal Bahadir; Köksal, BerkSince 2011, the Syrian Civil War has become an arena of international competition between regional and global powers. As a dominant regional actor, Turkey has important interests in this conflict. However, although great importance is given to civil war factors and power balances at the field level, Turkey’s internal conditions play a role as well as these externalities. Therefore, an analysis of Turkey’s foreign policy towards Syria from a local perspective is needed to reveal some negligible dynamics. In this direction, this study aims to analyse Turkey’s foreign policy towards Syria, taking into account the interaction between Turkey’s external and internal dynamics within the framework of neoclassical realist theory. Within this scope, we ask “how do Turkish external and internal dynamics explain its foreign policy in Syria?” as the leading search question and conduct our analysis using the explanatory case study method. Based on our findings, we provide a broad perspective on the significant impacts of four main internal factors on Turkish foreign policy, from the start of the Civil War to the most recent “Operation Spring Shield” by the Turkish Army and local Syrian armed groups. ItemSaudi Arabia’s Foreign Policy Towards Turkey During and After Arab Uprising: A Defensive Realism Approach(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Kural, Muzaffer; Erdem, GökhanThe Arab Uprisings in 2011 have led to redistribution of power in the Middle East. It has brought challenges and opportunities for regional powers such as Saudi Arabia and Turkey. While Turkey has perceived the developments as an opportunity to increase its influence in the region, it has created threat perceptions for Saudi Arabia’s hegemony in the Middle East. Especially, due to Turkey’s rising influence in Egypt and Syria it has been perceived as a second rival, after Iran, by Riyadh. This article argues that due to Turkey’s rising power in Egypt and Syria, Saudi Arabia’s foreign policy towards Turkey has been shifting by supporting local actors in Egypt and Syria in order to maintain the status quo. The paper aims to analyze shifts in Saudi Arabia’s foreign policy towards Turkey during and post-Arab uprisings in the Middle East in the framework of defensive realism through the regional level of analysis. ItemRealism – Forgotten Theory for Peacebuilding(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Baihuzhakava, AlinaThe article brings attention to the gap in the research on peacebuilding from the perspective of realist theories. Started by Johan Galtung, the peacebuilding field has been largely influenced by his understanding of peace and violence, as well as by the peace studies discipline itself. An Agenda for Peace turned the theoretical concept into international practice, and the liberal spirit accompanying it imprinted on the research approaches that guide peacebuilding activities. Executed in the form of democratic transformation and statebuilding, peacebuilding operations often did not bring the expected results and called on a lot of criticism. Besides, throughout the decades dominating approaches (liberalism complemented by institutional and critical IR theories) have not been able to explain the continuous unattainability of sustainable peace and exacerbation of violence. A little attention has been given to peacebuilding by the realist theory, which has limited interest in local conflicts. In this aspect, the article aims to discuss how the realist theories have been addressing the topic of peacebuilding so far, analyse what are the main assumptions related to peacebuilding from a realist perspective; and assess if the realist theories can be helpful in resolving the problem of peacebuilding ineffectiveness. The article opens further discussion on whether the realist perspective and its focus on states’ interests, rather than (democratic and liberal) values and institutions, can be used for analysing the problems of the peacebuilding process and can help to better understand situations, where it is ineffective. ItemTerrorism and Jihadism in the Islamic Republic of Iran(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Czulda, RobertAlthough from the very beginning of its existence the Islamic Republic of Iran has been regularly accused of supporting international terrorism, including Sunni organizations, this phenomenon is also a significant and growing threat for Tehran itself. In recent years Iran has become a target for the Sunni jihadists, who have even announced that in the near future the Shi’ite regime in Tehran would collapse and the Islamic State would take over. At the same time Iran has to cope with more traditional threats, posed by ethnic separatists – mainly Arabs, Kurds and the Baloch people – as well as by the MEK (People’s Mujahedin of Iran). This paper analyzes main terrorism-related threats to contemporary Iran and to present both their causes and dynamics. The main argument of the paper is that although these challenges are mainly local (provincial), they have a potential to trigger a snowball effects and can weaken already a vulnerable stability of the Islamic Republic even further. Moreover, it is argued that decision-makers in Iran do not solve structural problems, but react with a further securitization. A risk is even higher now, when an increasing number of Iranians have become highly dissatisfied with their living conditions. ItemAbraham Accords Against the Backdrop of the Middle East Political Mosaic(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Kosman, Michał M.In the second decade of the 21st century, many processes destabilized regional security in the Middle East. These include, first of all, the Arab Spring and the civil war in Syria, in which Russia, the United States, a number of regional powers and many non-state actors were involved. Iran’s nuclear ambitions turned out to be another major challenge, especially after the US withdrew from the JCPOA agreement in 2018. The pro-Israel stance of President Donald Trump’s administration has also strongly influenced the Middle East mosaic of interests. Under these circumstances, in 2020, Israel’s agreements with several Arab states, known as the Abraham Accords, were concluded. The aim of the article is to describe these agreements, analyze their causes and outline their consequences. The author adopted the hypothesis that the Abraham Accords constitute a significant step towards strengthening the acceptance of Arab states for Israel and its strategic interests. In the preparation of the text, the method of document and literature analysis was used primarily. ItemThe Practical Dimension of the Response of Public Security Institutions to Contemporary Terrorist Attacks(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Stelmach, JarosławThe research results presented in this publication aim to identify the basic task areas that are critical in the response of public security institutions to contemporary terrorist attacks. Corresponding to the objective of the research process is the research question - what are the key task areas of public security institutions that will be critical in responding to contemporary terrorist acts? The author assumed in the research hypothesis the existence of such key task areas, initially assigning them to organisational, communication, educational and logistical activities. The research described in the text was based on scientific methods in the form of document analysis, case studies and participant observation. The research results obtained became the basis for developing key task areas that should be taken into account in the preparation of solutions for institutional response to contemporary terrorist acts. The results of the research also concern several universal features of contemporary terrorist attacks, which take into account the diversity of methods and tools used in carrying them out. ItemFrom Speech Acts to Extraordinary Measures - Securitization and Hybrid Warfare in Iran-Israel Relations(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Grabowski, WojciechThe purpose of this article is to investigate Iranian-Israeli relations, which are based on hate speech and hybrid warfare, but can actually be reduced to a struggle for power and domination. In order to legitimize their military actions against an enemy state, both Iran and Israel must securitize the threat, which means they must convince the public that the opposing state poses an existential threat. Hate speech and aggressive rhetoric are used by both countries and represent a subjective perception of a threat, as well as a legitimizing tool to justify extraordinary measures to counter the threats. Appealing to fears and threats and the method of creating an enemy are well-known political strategies that ensure the legitimacy of power. ItemMohammed Bin Salman’s Rising to Power. Chances for Transition in Saudi Arabia?(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Ożarowski, RafałThe aim of this paper is to present the outline of planned and already implemented social, political and economic changes in the context of gradual transition of power in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The main thesis put in this paper relates to Mohammed bin Salman’s leading project – “Vision 2030” which assumed gradual multi-dimensional transition in Saudi Arabia. Many of changes implemented already, including the limitation of clergy’s activity will not bring about quick social-political transition due to long-lasting and deeply rooted alliance between Saudi ruling clan and radical movement of Wahhabis, that determines conservative regime in the country. Basing on the main thesis Author tries to give the answer to research questions correlated with the thesis and touching the issue of possibility for implementation political, economic changes in Saudi Arabia by Mohammed bin Salman. In the paper following research methods has been applied: historical method, which refers to analysis of historical process of shaping and development Saudi monarchy; documentary analysis - relating to governmental project “Vision 2030” particularly; elements of systemic approach in which system is constituted by political regime of Saudi Arabia; elements of statistical method employed in the context of variable economic or social data and elements of predictive referring to the model of Saudi Arabia’s development under the rule of Mohammed bin Salman. ItemInsecurity in the Middle East: Why Do the Reformist Movements Constantly Fail? Towards a New Conceptual Framework(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Dolatabadi, Ali Bagheri; Shafie Seifabadi, MohsenOver the last three decades, the Middle East countries have frequently witnessed popular protests against the authoritarian regimes. The question is why these protests never come to a desirable end? Regardless of the role played by foreign actors in perpetuating the authoritarian regimes of the Middle East, it seems that what causes the protests not to be pervasive and the political infrastructures not to collapse is that the protests have not been supported by the people’s majority. The present article argues that such a dearth of support refers to a fundamental cause that we named the fear cycle. This cycle includes the masses’ fear of the regime, fear of the movement’s failure and its dire consequences, and fear of the political system that is supposed to come to power after the overthrow of the incumbent government. The governments have an important role in creating and perpetuating this fear and turning it into a panic. ItemFake News and Content Manipulation Under Russian Information Aggression(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Kornieiev, Vitalii; Ryabichev, Vyacheslav; Glushkova, TetianaThe article explores the information aggression of Russian mass media in the hybrid war against Ukraine by analyzing cases when Russian media spread distorted or fake information in their coverage of the annexation of Crimea, the military conflict in Donbas, and political events inside and outside Ukraine. The research employs content and comparative analyses to study the structure of fake news as well as methods to use and disseminate the news among readers. In particular, attention is paid to manipulation technologies in social media. The article examines the concept of hybrid war that Russia managed to actualize during its occupation of Crimea and a part of Eastern Ukraine, its methods to expand into external information space during the Ukrainian presidential election and its increasing tension in relations with the United States and Iran. The results of the research consist of the analysis of techniques used in Russian mass media texts to spread fake news and influence audiences; the article also puts forward a classification of fake news as well as offers recommendations on ways to counteract disinformation in crisis communication. It is also argued that Russia is waging the war not only in the content environment of Ukraine but also that of many other countries. It is urgent that various forms and methods of Russian influence on the public opinion, its attempts to shape pro-Russian views in the democratic Western world, imposition of one-sided interpretation of international treaties should be resisted by teaching media literacy to audiences as well as by granting them with transparency and unimpeded access to original information sources. ItemPeculiarities, Models and Problems of Interaction of International Non-Governmental Organisations With Other International Actors in Ensuring Peace and Security(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Kruchinina, Oksana; Dorosh, Lesia; Ilnytska, UlianaThe efficiency and effectiveness of the international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) in ensuring peace and security as relevant and growing only in dynamic interaction and cooperation with other international actors (international governmental organisations, non-governmental actors, and civil society institutions) have been justified. The features, models and problems of interaction of INGOs with other international actors in maintaining peace, stability and security, solving and preventing modern security challenges of the international system have been comprehensively studied. Such interaction and coordination of the efforts of INGOs and other international actors is viewed through the prism of expanding the areas of competence of non-governmental international organisations and increasing their activity in various areas. Some examples of an active involvement of non-governmental organisations in the activities of the UN (and its structures), NATO, OSCE, CoE, EU are given. Challenges of the interaction of governmental and non-governmental sectors in the international arena are analysed. International non-governmental actors, being independent (mostly) of their governments and officials of other international structures, are emphasised to have the opportunity to respond to strategic security challenges quickly and effectively, update public opinion, and mobilise the international community to address security issues at the regional and global levels. ItemThe Potential of Selected Central Asian States to Provide Security in Crises(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Pachucki-Włosek, KrystianThis article aims to introduce the activities of selected Central Asian countries – having a direct border with Afghanistan, i.e. Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan – to ensure security after the change of power in Kabul. Familiarisation with the subject matter made it possible to pose the following research questions: 1) Do the selected Central Asian states show predestination to pursue an independent policy towards the Afghan problem? 2) Has the Taliban’s seizure of control of the country been reflected in the strengthening of the position of China, the United States and Russia in the region? 3) ) Has the Taliban’s seizure of control of the country been reflected in the strengthening of the position of China, the United States and Russia in the region?? The collected materials in the form of official government communiqués and press releases provided the key to analyzing the selected actions of state bodies in the situation of increasing threat, tracing the attempts to expand cooperation with subjects of international law understood as states and international organizations. While highlighting the issues of maintaining internal order, it was impossible to omit the issue of the military potential of the state, influencing the security strategy planning process. The main research methods used while creating the article were: synthesis through causal association, analogy, induction and deduction. ItemThe Scarborough Shoal Standoff and the Policy of the People’s Republic of China Towards Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Luzak, PawełThe aim of this article is to distinguish the key assumptions and instruments of the People’s Republic of China’s foreign policy towards territorial disputes in which this country is involved (with particular focus on the conflicts over islands and features in the South China Sea) through in-depth analysis of PRC’s policy in the conflict over Scarborough Shoal. According to the working hypothesis the events that took place in 2012 and ultimately led to the PRC’s de facto control over the shoal could be viewed as a model for the country’s future actions in the regional conflicts. The article has been divided into three parts. The first one presents the subject matter of the dispute and its historical determinants. The latter characterizes the interests of individual countries involved in the conflict, their position, and the legal background to the dispute. Finally, the third section analyzes the events of 2012 and their implications, along with an attempt to isolate the elements that may constitute the model of the PRC’s future policy with regard to territorial disputes in which it is involved (“Scarborough model”). The following research questions were asked for the purpose of structuring the analysis: 1) What is the factual and legal background to the Scarborough Shoal standoff? 2) How and by means of what instruments did China establish effective control of the atoll? 3) What is the role of the dispute in the context of the PRC’s remaining territorial claims over the South China Sea? The article primarily uses the method of gathering and observing facts, as well as the decision-making method in the context of analyzing the positions of the states involved in the dispute. Also, the process method was used to present the genesis of the studied political processes. ItemThe Study of the Effects of us Geopolitical Policies on the Divergence of the Islamic World. Case Study: Southwest Asia(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Afzali, Rasoul; Seyedi Asl, SeyedmohammadThe Islamic world is one of the most important regions in the world in terms of geopolitical competition, focusing on the region of Southwest Asia in terms of geo-economic, geo-strategic and geo-culture. Despite the widespread commonalities in the political geography of the Islamic world in structural and functional terms, the interdependence of the region has not been able to move towards convergence, cooperation and interaction. One of the influential variables in the political trends of this region has been the geopolitical policies of the United States of America. The United States has always influenced the political trends of this strategic region based on its goals and interests. The result of researches show that the United States has a significant impact on divergence of Islamic world in terms of geo-culture in promoting the discourse of liberalism, geo-strategy on arms sales and stabilization of military rivalries between world powers, and geo-economics in free market competition and cheap energy resources. The convergence of Islamic world has been against the geopolitical interests of the United States of America. ItemThe Politicization of Intellectual Property Rights in the Context of Karabakh(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Muradov, Adalat; Hajiyeva, NargizUntil recently, intellectual property law has been kept away from the political realm, as it was merely linked to economic and legal factors. However, in light of recent geopolitical processes and politically charged conflicts, political science has taken dominance in terms of intellectual property (IP) development and proclivities. In contemporary international politics, it is critical to explain and perceive IP tendencies and systems from the perspectives of political science and political economy, to consider appropriate retorts to processes arising from IPR conflicts in the Karabakh region of Azerbaijan during the occupation. Azerbaijan had been confronted with limitations of its control over its territory due to the nearly three decades of the Karabakh conflict. In this regard, the article will answer questions related to the violation of intellectual property rights, the exploitation of goods and services, as well as the other IPR problems encountered by Azerbaijan during the occupation of Karabakh. ItemThe Policy of Maximum Pressure on Iran. US Policy Objectives and Effects(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Fiedler, RadosławThe main goal of this paper is to examine the Trump administration’s maximum-pressure policy toward the Islamic Republic of Iran. The main causes and rationale for withdrawing from the nuclear JCPOA are identified. In addition, the consequences of maximum pressure are addressed, which harm the so far failed JCPOA restoration negotiations. An additional thread in the article is a critical appraisal of the sanctions policy, which for decades has failed to deliver the results expected by the USA, which is an inhibiting factor in a dynamically changing international environment. Moreover, the costs to the US of sanctions pressure on Iran have been identified. ItemThe Evolution and Relevance of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) in Shaping the Asylum and Migration Securitization Process in the European Union(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Tomaszewska, SaraThe aim of the article is to analyze the importance of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency in the ongoing process of securitization of asylum and migration in the European Union countries. Therefore, the paper will attempt to answer the following research questions: how has the evolution of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency’s activities contributed to the ongoing securitisation of asylum and migration in the European Union and can all of Frontex’s core tasks be considered securitisation practices? The article also attempts to attribute Frontex’s main tasks to two types of securitisation practices proposed by Thierry Balzacq: (1) traditional activities that have been implemented to address what are largely perceived as security issues; (2) extraordinary activities, not only in the sense of ‘exceptional’ or ‘illegal’ but more broadly in the sense of ‘unusual’ that is, never before used or rarely used in relation to migration and asylum. ItemScientific Research in Austrian Security Strategies and Research on Security and Defence(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2022) Szewior, KrzysztofOfficial documents of the Austrian government indicate the growing dependence of the economy and society on technical infrastructure, which required continuous research. Austria has developed a national research program to promote its economy, technology and cooperation. It is also intended to support the Austrian defence and civilian economy as a coherent part of the EU’s research, technology and economic structures. This text is based in particular on primary literature, which includes documents of EU institutions, Austrian security and defence strategies, and statements of the Ministry of Defense. This publication attempts to answer the question of how Austria made an effort to integrate security and defence issues with the national research-technology-innovation system (Forschung-Technologie-Innovation, hereinafter FTI), with the specificity of the domestic industry dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper is based on the analysis of documents and scientific interpretation of key EU and Austrian positions. The research aims to analyze and understand the role of research in the concept of (national) security in Austria and to link it with the EU’s security and defence policy. Research and this publication verify the assumption that the security and strategic autonomy of the EU / Member States require integrated solutions (Europeanization process). Going beyond the soft impact toward hard instruments requires a knowledge-based development and synergies of coherent strategies, technologies and research. The EU saw the need for a structured promotion of research and innovation in the field of security and defence. Austria has been developing such research for several years, mainly at the national level and application. The steps taken by Austria demonstrate the will to operate in wider EU (infra) structures and to benefit from financial instruments while supporting and profiting from socio-economic processes.