ItemLand-cover modelling using CORINE Land Cover data and multi-layer perceptron(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2014) Dzieszko, PiotrLast decades of research have revealed the environmental impacts of Land-Use/Cover Change (LUCC) throughout the globe. Human activities’ impact is becoming more and more pronounced on the natural environment. The key activity in the LUCC projects has been to simulate the syntheses of knowledge of LUCC processes, and in particular to advance understanding of the causes of land-cover change. Still, there is a need of developing case studies regional models to understand LUCC change patterns. The aim of this work is to reveal and describe the main changes in LUCC patterns occurring in Poznań Lakeland Mesoregion according to CORINE Land Cover database. Change analysis was the basis for the identification of the main drivers in land cover changes in the study area. The dominant transitions that can be grouped and modelled separately were identified. Each submodel was combined with all submodels in the final change prediction process. Driver variables were used to model the historical change process. Transitions were modelled using multi-layer perceptron (MLP) method. Using the historical rates of change and the transition potential model scenario for year 2006 was predicted. Corine Land Cover 2006 database was used for model validation. ItemImplementation of Flood Directive in Poland in the context of floodplain development(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2014) Głosińska, EwaThe Flood Directive (FD) aims to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks, aiming at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity (FD, Art. 1). The implementation of Directive is a multi-stage process, with the defined deadlines for the completion of each stage. The main aim of the paper is to present the process of Flood Directive implementation in Poland, including the present state of works on the implementation of particular stages. The evaluation of the significance of Directive implementation in Poland will also be presented. ItemVariability of sediment transport in the Scott River catchment (Svalbard) during the hydrologically active season of 2009(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2014) Kociuba, Waldemar; Janicki, Grzegorz; Siwek, KrzysztofInvestigations of fluvial transport in the glacial river catchment (Scott River, Spitsbergen) were conducted in the melt season of 2009. A special attention was given to dynamics and distribution of bedload transport − the major component of fluvial transport in a proglacial gravel-bed river. Bed-load transport rate was determined using the River Bedload Traps (RBT) constructed for the project’s need. The obtained results indicate high diversity of bedload transport, the amount of which reached up to 220 kg m–1 day–1 for twenty-four hours in particular measurement sites. The results confirmed also great variability of local intensity fluvial processes in polar zone. ItemIce phenomena in the Warta River in Poznań in 1961–2010(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2014) Kornaś, MarikaThe article presents variability of ice phenomena in the Warta River in Poznań based on data recorded in the water gauge station in Poznań – Roch Bridge in 1961–2010. The work aims to characterize and analyze ice phenomena and related hazards. First dates (freeze date), last dates (thaw date) and duration of ice phenomena and particular forms of ice, i.e. frazil ice, border ice, ice cover, ice floes and ice jam, were determined. In case of ice cover, its thickness was also analyzed. In the analyzed period, ice phenomena in the Warta River in Poznań had the maximum duration of 118 days, the earliest date appearance was on November 7 and the last on March 28. The first ice form to appear was frazil ice, the last ice floes and the longest lasting – ice floes. In the entire analyzed period, 15 winter seasons featured ice cover. The longest duration of ice cover was 29 days and its maximum thickness was 8 cm. ItemConceptual model for assessing the channel changes upstream from dam reservoir(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2014) Liro, MaciejMost of geomorphological studies related to the impact of dam reservoirs are focused on its effect on the river channels downstream of dams. However, little is known about the evolution of river channels upstream of dams (in backwater areas). In this paper I propose a conceptual model of alluvial channel changes in the backwater. It assumes that three conditions of a channel that may occur in the pre-dam period. These are sediment supply deficit, balance and surplus compared to the river transport capacity. These conditions can be strengthened, stable or weakened. In the post-dam period these conditions is modified by the influence of the dam reservoir, which may affect the trajectory of channel changes, as well as its response and adjustment time in the backwater. The adjustment of channel parameters, in spite of the reservoir operation mode, also depends on the local river, reach characteristics and the magnitude and frequency of floods. Therefore, the use of an appropriate reference reach is inherent in this model. The model suggests that some adverse changes to backwater channels degraded by the regulation can be hampered. The model is based on Lane’s balance concept. It may be useful for explaining and predicting channel changes upstream of reservoirs and forming hypotheses in other studies. ItemFrost weathering of selected rocks from the Tatra Mountains(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2014) Lubera, EwaThe paper summarises the progress of a frost weathering simulation experiment involving a range of rocks after more than 300 gelation cycles. Samples of granite, conglomerate, sandstone, dolomite, limestone and amphibolite were sourced in the Chochołowska Valley, Tatra Mts. The simulation project, which continues at the Low Temperature Laboratory of the Jagiellonian University, Cracow, is set to quantify the resistance of the rocks to frost weathering by measuring the number of gelation cycles after which the samples are damaged. At the end of the project, the degree of damage will be assessed using the percentage loss of the initial sample weight and a frost weathering indicator. So far, little damage has been recorded overall, with the dolomite samples losing the highest percentage of their initial weight at nearly 6%. The paper also presents results of physical tests of the rocks, including their strength, porosity and density, which provide a useful insight into the interpretation of differences in frost weathering resistance. ItemRelief development of the Babia Góra massif, Western Carpathian Mountains(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2014) Łajczak, AdamThe paper discusses structural considerations relating to landform development on Mt. Babia Góra (1,725 m a.s.l.), the highest massif in the flysch section of the Western Carpathian Mountains. The Babia Góra massif consists of folded Palaeogene-age sediments, including resistant Magura sandstone and less resistant sub-Magura layers, with numerous tectonic faults. The area has inverse-type geomorphology. The monoclinal ridge of the massif itself consists of the resistant Magura sandstone dipping southwards. Since the Miocene, the development of the massif’s relief has involved a number of processes, including: tectonic uplifting, removal of a thick layer of rocks, exposure of sub-Magura layers over a large area, the staged development of valleys dissecting the pediments surrounding the ever higher ridge, and slope retreat due to deep landsliding. Axes of linear terrain forms, escarpments of landslide scars and of headwater areas follow two main intersecting fracture lines present within the massif. Large quantities of colluvial material are transported away from the massif along these lines. The development of the land relief has led to the elongation of slopes as local elevation differences increased. Landsliding has developed in an uphill direction, which means that the youngest relief is observed on the highest sections of steep slopes. The development of the massif’s northern slope, which has formed a high and precipitous cuesta, began to accelerate only after a nearly complete exposure of the sub-Magura layers at its foot. Following this exposure the profile of the massif’s N-S cross-section has begun to become asymmetrical. With time, the degree of general remodelling of the massif has tended to decrease. As a result, the geomorphological contrast between the northern and southern sides of the massif has become well established. The description of the probable development of the Babia Góra relief is based on the author’s fieldwork, an analysis of geological maps and aerial photos, and on literature. ItemImpact of sea level rise to coastal ecology: a case study on the northern part of Java Island, Indonesia(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2014) Marfai, Muh ArisThe coastline of Indonesia, which borders almost 17,500 islands and the sea and extends for more than 80,000 km, is vulnerable to sea level rise. This paper aims to investigate the impact of sea level rise on coastal ecology in Indonesia focusing on coastal area of Jakarta, Pekalongan, Semarang and Demak in the northern part of Java Island. Geo-spatial data, i.e. satellite images and maps were used to monitor the environmental changes and primary data were obtained through field survey and observation on the specified area. In Jakarta, sea level rise has been predicted to bring great damages to infrastructure in coastal area. Multiple impacts of sea level rise towards mangrove, agriculture, and aquaculture ecosystem occurs in Pekalongan. Semarang coastal area also suffers from the widening spread of health problems as the coastal inundation increases. At the same time, Demak experiences major losses on mangrove and aquaculture ecosystem due to sea level rise. ItemRelation between extensive extreme precipitation in Poland and atmospheric circulation(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2014) Nowosad, Jakub; Stach, AlfredThe basic aim of this study was to find relations between the dates of occurrence and characteristics of extensive extreme daily (24-h) precipitation totals (EEDPTs) and pressure systems. The analysis was conducted on the basis of precipitation data from the multi-year period 1956-1980 and the Grosswetterlagen classification of circulation situations. EEDPTs were taken to embrace those cases of maximum annual daily precipitation totals that were registered on the same day at a minimum of 75 precipitation stations. In the years 1956-1980 there were 209 such events. The hypothesis about the effect of a circulation situation on the probability of occurrence of an EEDPT was verified in quantitative terms, the reference being both the entire multi-year period and the seasonal variation in the occurrence of precipitation of this type. Next, circulation situations were compared in terms of amount-related parameters of EEDPTs (mean precipitation, coefficient of variation), their spatial features (perimeter, area), and precipitation volume. The analyses performed show a statistically significant dependence between the atmospheric circulation and extensive extreme precipitation. It was demonstrated that there were circulation situations during which EEDPTs occurred much more often or much more rarely than over the entire multi-year period under study. Also identified was the connection of an atmospheric circulation with the mean amount, coefficient of variation and volume of extensive extreme precipitation. ItemLandforms and geomorphosites ongoing changes: Concepts and implications for geoheritage promotion(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2014) Pelfini, Manuela; Bollati, IreneThe promotion of geological and geomorphological heritage is growing in importance for educational initiatives. The constantly increasing interest towards changing landforms due to changing climate conditions asks not only for improving the values of the cultural proposals but also for précising the subject of the discussion. Cultural trails and natural resources valorisation are more and more frequently based on the concept of geomorphosite, which is strictly linked to landform typology definitions. In sensitive areas, changing geomorphosites are considered of great interest as a typical response to changes in climate. In this paper, on the basis of recent research, we discuss the definitions of landforms and geomorphosites activity in relation to surface processes dynamics. In addition, we discuss the implications of geomorphological surface processes for geomorphosite evolution and degradation and their consequent impact on related valorisation activities. We indicate how both active and passive landforms, and therefore geomorphosites, are of great interest for scientific, educational and tourism purposes.