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- ItemPSYCHOSPOŁECZNE SKUTKI PRZEMOCY WYSTĘPUJĄCEJ W GRACH ELEKTRONICZNYCH(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 2001) Poznaniak, WojciechComputer games are most frequently used by the juveniles and they are meant to teach them a decision making, to enforce and train a concentration of the mind, a co-ordination of view and arms reflexes and - finally - to make a reflection perfect. Wins do enforce a feeling of being good and valuable while defeats are never perceived as a terminal mistake but still do offer a possibility of correcting. All of this together is possibly able to reduce the fear, to increase the feeling of success and to incite the imagination. Alas, in very much of the games in question there are elements of violation, aggression and destruction. The Author gives a review o f particular types of such games (i.e. simulating games, races, fighting games, shooting games, sports, adventure games, etc.) and cites on this occasion adequate descriptions and instructions for the players - what is all meant for to advertise and to stress the attractive force of the games. The violence and cruelty of virtual reality are a ware of the bestseller type. The Author cites for the instance some of the most sadist games for to demonstrate how much are they profit making for their producers. The main part of the article is devoted to a presentation of possible influence of electronic games on the behavior, the ways of thinking and feeling of the juveniles. The Author ands her considerations with a review o f the methods of social supervision of the games and, finally, with an appeal for more rigorous observation of principles of advertising the games and distributing them among the youth.
- ItemMOTYWACJA DO PRZEKAZYWANIA SPADKÓW W ŚWIETLE WSPÓŁCZESNYCH BADAŃ W KRAJACH WYSOKO ROZWINIĘTYCH(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 2001) Szukalski, PiotrBecoming a successor or not is a fact of very much importance for quite many people. The estimations made tell us that commonly the share of goods inherited within the property owned by contemporary households is up to 40 per cent. An inheritance obtained brings not rarely a violent change in material situation of an individual-successor while an unjust or unjustified division of it is able to cause long term family conflicts. The article presents particular types of motivations that can be met in contemporary economic ideas; the types in question make a framework of the analysis of a behavior as far as a property accumulation is concerned and, consequently, in relation with transmitting it to the progeny under a form of an inheritance. The problems involved with inheriting shall be of increasing importance together with strengthening of market economy in our country and with still and more deeper differences in the society from the point of view of property owned. Referring to different categories of inheritances (planned or non-planned, capitalist, retrospective, paternalist, motivated by ordinary succession o f generations, etc.) - the Author gives a review o f particular types of motivations and in final part of the article he is occupied with a qualification of the existing models of inheriting and with empirical verification of typical approaches.
- ItemWSPÓŁCZESNA POLSKA RELIGIJNOŚĆ W KONTEKŚCIE TEORII ANOMII R. K. MERTONA(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 2001) Królikowska, AnnaMany quick changes, as a rule, do increase a possibility of anomie. Also, or even - especially, in the field of religiousness. After the period of transition the old model according to which „to be Pole is to be Catholic” still persists, but the new situation (in its political, economical, social and cultural aspects) has much influenced and changed Polish religiousness. Nowadays in Poland people is meeting an uneasy task to reconcile, on one hand, the requirements and standards of Polish traditional Catholic Church addressed to them as to worshippers, with the new reality and its demands - on the other. Individuals react using some adaptive strategies. In this paper an attempt to analyse Polish religiousness in context of R. K. Merton’s adaptive behavior typifying has been carried out. The aim and means have been assumed in the language of church religiousness. Only a few per cent of Polish society consequently accomplish the church model of religiousness in their Uves (conformity). It might be expected that other types of reactions can be classified correspondingly to other types of individual adaptive behaviors like innovation, ritualism, withdrawal, contestation, etc.
- ItemRENTOWNOŚĆ PROWADZENIA DZIAŁALNOŚCI MAKLERSKIEJ W POLSCE(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 2001) Dembny, ArturThe article presents a spot look at the matter because of the fact that such activities in Poland are known since about 1990, so it must be necessarily taken from a much longer time context. Moreover we must admit that up to 1996 national stock market stayed still in its primordial stage; future customs have only started to affluence, their structure has just begun to get its shape and the stock exchange itself continued still to stay in a phase of constant developing for purely organizational reasons (techniques of turnover, number of sessions, number of brokers’ offices) and qualitative problems (number of quoted values). The Author presents brokers’ activities in the light of the law in force now in Poland (first of all - of the „Law on public circulation of securities” from August 21, 1997, and he cites next the kinds of activities related to the circulation of securities which necessarily demand to acquire a license. He also cites all changes in this respect after introducing in Poland of the law of the European Union. Next the structure of customs of brokers’ offices and the structure of assets on investments accounts in the period of 1998-2000 are discussed as well as financial returns of brokers’ activities in the same period. In final part of his article the Author mentions future determining features of the effectiveness of brokers’ activities and reconsiders the position of brokers’ houses within the organizational structure of Polish market.
- ItemDOCHODY BUDŻETOWE A INWESTYCJE KOMUNALNE W GMINACH WIELKOPOLSKICH(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 2001) Węckowski, RyszardAn attempt has been undertaken in the article to evaluate the communes’ income and to establish relation that exist between chosen elements of communal budgets and the level of communal investments. Against the background of information on the level and structure of the income of local self-governmental budgets in the scale of the whole country - the article presents the results of research work made upon the communes that presently do form the new voivodship of Great Poland. This analysis relates to the period 1991 - 1998. Statistical methods proper to structural analysis and to interdependence of such phenomena have been applied in research work. Clear duality is self-evident when examining the communes in question and evaluating them from the point of view of their budgets’ income. On one hand we have to do with quite big group of distinctly poor communes, and on the other - there is relatively small group of communes of an income level that is considerably superior to the average. The second group is mainly consisted with the communes situated in the vicinity of the town of Poznań and some communes in former voivodship of Konin. Richer communes do indeed confine more money for their communal investments (per capita) however they are not leading as far as a share of investments expenses in their budget incomes is concerned. A part of the communes researched runs quickly into debt for to acquire investment means. It is however done by communes of moderate means, semi-municipal and semi-rural in their character. The richest communes must not have recourse to such an indebtedness, and the poorest ones clearly fear the threat of insolvency. The development of particular equipment in the sphere of communal infrastructure proves to have however only a quite general relation with the wealth of a commune. The rhythm of developing chosen kinds of communal equipment in the communes of similar income scale differs often considerably. The text of the article is completed with numerous graphs and diagrams which make evident the differentiation scale of the phenomenons and processes occurring within the analyzed voivodship.