Badania Fizjograficzne, Seria A, Tom 61, 2010

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    Działalność turystyczna podmiotów gospodarczych na terenie województwa wielkopolskiego w roku 2008
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Przybylska, Anna
    Tourist industry stimulates economic growth of a region, facilitates development of business and creates new jobs. Service of this industry increases economic activity and creates additional income for local communities. Steady increase of tourist industry is observed in the Wielkopolska region. This study analyses newly established, existing and liquidated (in 2008) tourism-related businesses, including accommodation and catering. The analysis is based on data obtained from the Central Office of Statistics (GUS), including data published by the Regional Data Bank of GUS. Research shows, that over 97% incorporated economic subject acting in touristic section, belongs to private sector. This number is strictly related from administrative status of commune. Number of economic subject showing food services and dormitory is strictly related with largeness of administrative district. Number of such object predominates in region of Poznań. We can observe upward trend in considerably widest range of employment in hotels than in other sections of tourism.
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    Z historii zagranicznego ruchu turystycznego w Polsce
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Kłysz, Piotr
    The beginnings of tourist traffic in Poland go back to the second half of the 20th century. Earlier, particularly between 1945–1856, foreign tourism was almost non-existent. Tourism started to develop at the end of that period. The development gained momentum in the first half of the 1960s. In 1955 about 77,000 foreign tourists came to Poland and 44,000 Poles went to other countries. These figures have been growing considerably in the following years – in 1965 778,400 Polish tourists visited other countries and as many as 1,162,900 foreign tourists came to Poland. Foreign tourist traffic has been mainly organized by the Polish Travel Office Orbis. Other institutions involved in the organization of foreign tourism in Poland included PTTK (Polish Tourist and Sightseeing Organization), ZMS (Union of Socialist Youth), ZSP (Union of Polish Students), Polish Tourist Cooperative Gromada, and Turysta Cooperative. The opinions about Polanď’s attractiveness for tourists varied. In the 1980s many foreign tourists believed that Poland is not a very attractive tourist destination. A number of people who visited Poland in recent years have had a completely different opinion. In tourist materials dating back to the beginnings of the 1960s we can read that foreigners find in Poland everything that could be expected from a tourist trip, i.e., beautiful landscapes (Photo 1), and beautiful historical architecture (Photo 2). Polish tourists also go to many attractive regions of the world (Photo 3).
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    Wpływ cech litologicznych na podatność magnetyczną lessów z rejonu Wzgórz Dalkowskich
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Issmer, Katarzyna
    Magnetic susceptiblity (Ms) gives precise information about paleo-environmetal changes. The statistical relation between Ms and precise grain-size analysis of loess from Dalków Hills implies that any interpretation of the paleoclimatic record of loess sequences must recognize the detailed grain-size, because such relation could well imply paleo-environmetal changes in sediments without organic residuum. The data presented here suggest that environmental magnetic analysis of loess sediments is mainly dependent on fine silt content described in Aeolian literature as loess fraction. This study indicates that multiple methods should be employed in analyzing paleoclimatic changes recorded by magnetic susceptibility (Ms) in the Polish loess-paleosol sequences. Magnetic susceptibility (Ms) correlated with precise paleoclimatic grain-size investigations has yielded numerous records and resources.
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    Warunki mikroklimatyczne we wnętrzu boru sosnowego na Mierzei Łebskiej
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Kolendowicz, Leszek; Bednorz, Ewa
    The observed regularities concerning the differentiation of the temperature of individual layers of the pine forest point to the assumption by the tree crowns of the role of the active surface, which is served by the soil surface in the area devoid of vegetation. This is supported among others by the higher values of air temperature to a height of 6 m above ground level between 12.00–15.00 hours, this means during the maximum of the intensity of solar radiation (Molga 1970). Moreover the lowest values of air temperature appears to a bottom part of the pine forest above ground level between 15.00–8.00 hours. The inversion of temperature near the ground is a natural phenomenon in the night hours, particularly at dawn. If no compact vegetation layer is present, it comes into being during calm nights and in the predawn hours above the active surface (above the ground) due to the radiation of heat from the ground zone to higher layers of the atmosphere. Appearance of the cool layer in the bottom part of pine forest under the hight of 6–8 m above ground level during the points to the assumption of the role of the active surface by pine crowns at this very height (Molga 1970; Paszyński et al. 1999). Differences in temperature between the open area and the forest interior or the layer of air above the forest point to the differentiation of energy exchange processes, this being dependent on the nature of the active surface. The forest area is characterised by a clearly lower albedo value than the area of the grey sand dune upon which the MAWS 201 station is located. In addition, forest areas may accumulate a greater amount of heat during the day than the sandy soil covered with grassy vegetation. The stored heat, the quantity of which depends both on the heat capacity and the albedo value, is transferred to the atmosphere in the night. Thus, the layer of atmosphere above the forest is usually warmer at night than the air located above the ground not covered with dense and tall vegetation. During the day, the soil is considerably warmer than the active surface of the forest, which results from the lower heat capacity of the soil. For this reason, a considerably greater quantity of energy radiates in a longwave form than in the case of the forest, and thus the temperature of air above the ground during the day is higher (Paszyński et al. 1999). During the day, the interior of the forest is in turn cooler than the areas devoid of vegetation due to considerably weaker solar radiation reaching the forest bed. At night, however, due the emission of additional quantities of heat from the tall vegetation and the more difficult emission of energy from the forest soil to the atmosphere above the forest (due to its absorption by the vegetation), the temperature of air inside the forest is usually higher than in the area devoid of vegetation (Geiger 1942; Molga 1970). The distribution of humidity in individual layers of the researched forest community does not differ considerably from the results of research carried out on this topic by other authors. The greater content of water vapour in the air inside the forest in comparison with the open area results directly from the considerable intensity of evaporation of the lower active surface of the forest. The maintenance of the greatest air humidity in the lower zone of pine crowns is most probably connected with their additional transpiration (apart from the transpiration of vegetation of the forest bed) and low wind velocities, which make it possible for water vapour to gather and remain in this zone (Molga 1970).
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    Średniowieczne młyny wodne i ich wpływ na przemiany stosunków wodnych na przykładzie zlewni Obry Skwierzyńskiej
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Kaniecki, Alfred; Brychcy, Dorota
    From the mid-13th century onwards, water provided energy to water mills located in the catchment of Obra Skwierzyńska. They did not only mill grain but also produced groats, malt, fulled cloth, tanned skin, cut wood, ground metal and produced paper. Their considerable growth in number in this area was observed at the end of the 14th century as a result of the Polish-Lithuanian Union. This area found itself on the main trade routes. During the period from the 13th to 19th century, water mills had a significant influence on the formation of the hydrological system of the catchment area. Their building and functioning was connected with the formation of mill-pond trough, dams, building weirs and mill ditches as well as bypass channels. The river network adaptation for the abovementioned purposes also includes: river mining, river bed cleaning, river banks strengthening with timber piles and boards, changes in the amount of water in watercourses. Water from lakes, springs and other water races was guided to watercourses on which several water -mills were built. Water mills were built in meadows or wetlands , trough-out canals and trenches gathering water in millponds were dug out. This kind of permanent dewatering of wet areas and changing them into meadows and pastures; also, water energy utilization for production influenced the evolution of society, forced it to optimize the utilization of surface water resources.