ItemSociety in transition: cultural change in the Early Bronze Age cemetery at Nižná Myšl'a in the light of absolute chronology(Cambridge University Press, 2022-11-08) Jaeger, Mateusz; Stróżyk, Mateusz; Olexa, LadislavThe article presents the results of research on the absolute chronology of the Nižná Myšľa cemetery. Due to its scale and location in a key region of the Carpathian Basin, it should be considered one of the most important Early Bronze Age sites in Central Europe. Many years of archaeological research have so far failed to provide adequate data on absolute chronology. This text presents the results of statistical and spatial analyses on a series of newly acquired 14C dates. They allowed us to present a model of the spatial and chronological development of the funerary space and to capture the stage of significant cultural change associated with the adoption of a new raw material—bronze. ItemFirst evidence for the forging of gold in an Early Bronze Age Site of Central Europe (2200–1800 BCE)(2022-12-10) Müller, Johannes; Delgado-Raack, Selina; Escanilla, Nicolau; Kienle, Lorenz; Kneisel, Jutta; Czebreszuk, Janusz; Jaeger, Mateusz; Szmyt, Marzena; Schürmann, UlrichEvidence of gold processing in the fortified site of Bruszczewo (Poland) is the first testimony of the production of gold artefacts in a domestic Early Bronze Age site of Central Europe. This paper highlights the potential of macrolithic tool ensembles as a key element for the recognition of metallurgical work processes. Moreover, it presents an optimised methodological approach to tackle the application of stone tools in metallurgical production, based on technological characterisation, use-wear analysis, portable X-ray fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Finally, the absence of gold sources in Central Europe raises the question about the origin of the metal, constituting an especially striking issue, as gold was a raw material of restricted access. As Bruszczewo was one of the few enclosed Early Bronze Age sites north of the Central European Mountain Range, the patterning of metal processing (including gold) sheds light on the mode of the production of metal artefacts, apparently restricted to central sites of power, which controlled the communication trails. ItemRevealing the internal organization of a Middle Bronze Age fortified settlement in Kakucs-Turján through geoarchaeological means: Magnetometric survey and sedimentological verification of a housing structure(Elsevier, 2019) Niebieszczański, Jakub; Jaeger, Mateusz; Peto, Akos; Hildebrandt-Radke, Iwona; Kulcsar, Gabriella; Staniuk, Robert; Taylor, Nicole; Czebreszuk, JanuszKakucs – Turján is a multi – layered fortified settlement from the Middle Bronze Age located in Central Hungary. The site was subjected to a non – invasive prospection using the magnetometry method. The magnetic anomalies provided insight into the horizontal plan of the site, revealing a tri-partite structure encircled and divided internally by ditches. In one of the so-defined zones, an agglomeration of a house – like anomalies were detected indicating the location of the housing area. One of these features was subjected to archaeological excavations which revealed the remains of two houses built on top of each other (tell – like deposition). In addition to excavations, sedimentological and geochemical sampling provided data on the functional aspects of the house. The spatial distribution of chemical elements and grain – size parameters showed that the house witnessed heavy anthropogenic activity. The distribution of phosphorous, copper and zinc indicated that a large part of activities could have taken place outside of the house, in the area where a suspected entrance was registered during the excavations. Geoarchaeological analysis at Kakucs – Turján thus resulted in a delimitation of the site's internal organization and a clarification of one of the house's chronology and functionality. ItemThe site mapping of Kakucs-Turján by the means of horizontal and vertical proxies: Combining field and basic laboratory methods of geoarchaeology and archaeological prospection(2019) Peto, Akos; Niebieszczański, Jakub; Serlegi, Gabor; Jaeger, Mateusz; Kulcsar, GabriellaThe homogenous cultural identity that emerged during the Middle Bronze Age (2000–1450 cal BC) in the central territory of the Carpathian Basin is identified uniformly as the Vatya culture. The Vatya people created multilayered tells, open air horizontal, as well as fortified settlements along the western and eastern bank of the Danube river. These archaeological sites are significant elements of both the cultural and natural heritage of the Carpathian Basin. Their significance does not only lie within the possibility to reconstruct the life, society and material culture of Vatya populations, but the buried soils and anthropogenic sediments hold significant information on prehistoric human-environment interactions, and on site formation processes that occurred after the abandonment of the individual settlements. Geophysical prospection methods and field walking helped to locate and identify the tripartite structure of Kakucs-Turján archaeological site within the territory of the Danube–Tisza Interfluve. The settlement was established on the border of different geographical micro-regions and at the conjunction of dissimilar natural geographical environments. The stratigraphy of the site was described by the means of high resolution and focused series of hand auger observations, as well as on the basis of basic soil physical and chemical parameters. The detailed macro-morphological description of the soil core profiles aimed at precisely identifying the soilscape of the site and its vicinity, the stratigraphy of the anthropogenic and natural sediments of the settlement, but also to facilitate our understanding of the site formation process. Data gained by the means of geoarchaeological methods not only form the basis of environmental historical conclusions, but reveals mosaics of the interaction between ancient human populations and their environment. 1. Introduction 1.1. Archaeological background One of the most distinctive traits of the Middle Bronze Age (MBA; ca. 2000–1450 cal BC) in the central basin of the Danube (and in a broader context across the entire Carpathian Basin) was the dynamic development of fortified settlements (Earle and Kristiansen, 2010; Jaeger, 2016). Some of the settlements functioned uninterruptedly for a number of centuries; as a result, the current thickness of cultural layers ranges from several to over 10 m (...) ItemModele pamięci o Holokauście na Ukrainie w kontekście marginalności i marginalizacji dyskursów pamięci(2021) Jędraszczyk, KatarzynaThere are two main models of memory in Ukraine: nationalist and post-Soviet. After 1991, Ukrainian historiography concerning the Holokaust was influenced by Soviet and emigration historiography. It was reactive to the allegations that the Ukrainians are anti-Semitic. In the nationalist model of memory, there is no space for the memory of the Holokaust in Ukraine, it is rather a strategy of displacing trauma and guilt or emphasizing the contribution of Ukrainians to saving Jews. The post-Soviet model also goes without a narrative about the Holokaust, but rather because of the lack of tradition in the USSR of describing war as a multi-ethnic experience. In this sense, both models are similar–both are mono-ethnic narratives. The minority discourse (ethnic model) about the Holokaust in Ukraine has not yet advanced to the rank of a nationwide narrative. ItemUbiór czyni Rzymianina? Styl życia, folusznicy i romanizacja rzymskiej prowincji Panonii (I-III wiek n.e.)(2020) Kaczmarek, ZofiaThe paper discusses the role of attire in the process of Romanization of Pannonia. Special emphasis is placed on the probability of clothes having been fulled in the province. Since fulling was a matter of personal interest, not necessity, the emergence of the fullonicae could be considered as a symptom of embracing Roman way of life and thus Roman culture. ItemSprawozdanie z warsztatów terenowych "Przybliżenia: Łemkowszczyzna na styku kultur"(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2019-12-27) Ksenicz, IgorTekst stanowi sprawozdanie z warsztatów terenowych "Przybliżenia: Łemkowszczyzna na styku kultur" zrealizowanych w dniach 13-19 maja 2019 roku przez studentów I roku studiów uzupełniających magisterskich na kierunku "komunikacja europejska". Moduł „Przybliżenia” został sfinansowany z budżetu projektu „Uniwersytet Jutra” realizowanego przez UAM w ramach Programu Operacyjnego „Wiedza Edukacja Rozwój”. Celami modułu było: zapoznanie studentów z grupą etniczną Łemków i jej kulturą, wzmocnienie w studentach cechy otwartości na inne kultury oraz integracja studentów poprzez wspólną pracę badawczą. ItemThe Orthodox Church in Ukraine and Russia after 2013 in the face of political challenges, the Russian-Ukrainian conflict and questions about the limits of sovereignty(Przegląd Zachodni, Journal of the Institute of Western Affairs in Poznań, Special Issue 2019, s.229-254., 2019) Jędraszczyk, KatarzynaThe aim of the article is to analyse the place and importance of the Orthodox Church in the society and political culture of Ukraine after 2013. The new political realities following the Revolu-tion of Dignity, the annexation of Crimea and the war in Donbas created new challenges for the Or-thodox Church in Ukraine. Particularly important is the influence of the Russian Orthodox Church’s authority over the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate.At the turn of 2018 and 2019, by a decision of Patriarch Bartholomew I and with the support of the Ukrainian political authorities, a new reality became fact in Ukrainian Orthodoxy. However, the creation of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine (as a metropolis) does not mean that the split has been overcome. There will be two hostile, equal and comparably strong structures in Ukraine, politically backed by Ukraine and Russia, and this will draw those countries into conflicts over their religious structures and the wealth that their communities possess. At this stage, the Orthodox Church of Ukraine will rely primarily on the potential of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kiev Patriarchate, and this fact in turn will hinder the transfer of bishops and priests associated with the Moscow Patriarchate. The rift will be difficult to repair. ItemPochodzenie tkanin archeologicznych - analiza izotopowa strontu(2012) Kaczmarek, Zofia ItemStrój kapłana w starożytnym Rzymie za czasów Oktawiana Augusta(2010) Kaczmarek, ZofiaTe article discusses issues surrounding vestments worn by priests in ancient Rome,during the reign of Octavian Augustus. Te author attempts to prove that the attirewas intimately associated with the of ce held, it highlighted the eminence, signifcance, function as well as distinguished the wearer. Te matter is explored all the more easily thanks to the time span—the Augustan era—as the period offers numerous writtenand iconographic sources, as well as due to the fact that Augustus strove to reinstatetraditional religion, its cults and priests. ItemO warsztatach tkackich w starożytnym Rzymie słów kilka(2012) Kaczmarek, ZofiaIn the article, the authoress analyses archaeological, historical and iconographic sources which concern the craft of weaving. On their basis, the authoress discusses which types of loom were known to ancient Romans. Every type of loom is discussed, their drawbacks and advantages enumerated, and their popularity across the Empire presented ItemTextiles in Cultural Relations between Roman Empire and Barbaricum (1st-3rd cent. AD)(2015) Kaczmarek, Zofia ItemRoman Textiles and Barbarians: Some Observations on Textile Exchange between the Roman Empire and Barbaricum(Oxbow, 2014) Kaczmarek, Zofia ItemTkaniny w powieści Quo vadis? Henryka Sienkiewicza(2017) Kaczmarek, ZofiaHenryk Sienkiewicz’s novel Quo Vadis? is well known for its historical accuracy. The background of the book shows a deepened studies on ancient literary sources conducted by its author. The aim of my paper was to answer a question whether descriptions of textiles in the novel are adequate to the present state of knowledge about ancient textiles. To achieve this goal fragments of literary sources were analyzed along with archaeological textiles found on different sites of former Roman Empire. For the purpose of this article I chose the most intriguing textiles described by H. Sienkiewicz. These are: silk, purple, cotton – the luxury textiles worn or used by the most noble of the novel’s characters, and goat’s hair clothes, woollen and linen textiles worn by other protagonists. The analysis shows that the author’s descriptions fits almost perfectly the information given by ancient literary sources. What is more, the archaeological data confirm the literary sources’ evidence. Of course, as a writer, H. Sienkiewicz was not obliged to follow the historical truth, but by his efforts to do so, he made his story more realistic and believable. The careful choice of textiles to enrich the world of Quo Vadis? reflects the Christian message of the novel. The luxury and colourful textiles are worn by the degenerate elite, dark and simple clothing is reserved for the people who do not care about secular world. Moreover, with his materials descriptions, H. Sienkiewicz creates the popular picture of the ancient Romans’ style and clothing. ItemTEXTILE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN ROMAN PROVINCES AND IN FREE GERMANIA – A 21 ST CENTURY PERSPECTIVE(2017) Kaczmarek, ZofiaThe paper aims to present the state of research on Roman Period archaeological textiles and new, 21 st century perspectives for further analyses. The textiles proves to be important from the viewpoint of provincial economy, trade and cultural exchange. That is why, a special emphasis is put on the textile types, which are called Roman imports. ItemCreolising Textiles Some new light on textile production and consumption in Roman Age Free Germania(2017) Kaczmarek, ZofiaCreolisation is a concept of multicultural adjustment through which new societies are born, which can be successfully applied to the romanisation of the Roman provinces. This paper shows that it is applicable to the Roman period textiles found in Free Germania, especially those found in the territory of modern Poland. Creolisation assumes that the ‘barbarians’ were not passive in adopting Roman influence, but blended it with their own cultures sometimes for aesthetic but often for pragmatic reasons. In Germania Libera, new textiles were produced which were an amalgamation of not only Roman and local traditions but also of those of the neighbouring barbarian cultures. A common simplification assumes that the Germanic people were only interested in accepting Roman influence. However, this assumption is questionable. Archaeological material shows that the Germanic tribes stayed in contact with each other. This means that they also influenced each other’s fashion and weaving technology. That is why, when Roman influences reached Free Germania, they met an established mixture of different Germanic traditions. This suggests that new patterns of spin direction and different qualities of textiles, which can be observed in textiles of the Roman period, were not influenced by the Romans alone. The concept of creolisation helps to explain how complicated the contacts were between the Romans and Germans, and how difficult it is to determine Roman influence in textile production and consumption. ItemStamps on bricks and tiles from Novae. Outline of chronolgy(Ośrodek Badań nad Antykiem Europy Południowo-Wschodniej. Uniwersytet Warszawski, 2017) Duch, MichałThe First Italian legion produced building ceramics used in the construction of many buildings in the legion’s camp at Novae (Bulgaria), the remains of which have been investigated by archaeologists since 1960. The paper sums up current results of research on the chronology of artifacts of this kind, giving an overall review of the course and development of studies of stamped building ceramics in Novae to date. ItemFriction Ridge Impressions on Daub Fragments from the Early Bronze Age Settlement in Bruszczewo(2019) Stróżyk, Mateusz; Czebreszuk, Janusz; Jaeger, Mateusz; Matuszewski, Szymon; Mądra-Bielewicz, AnnaStudies of friction ridge impressions on archaeological artefacts are only very rarely published due to the high rate of destruction of such traces or leaving out such information of the analyses of archaeological material. The article presents the results of examinations of friction ridge impressions discovered on daub fragments from the Early Bronze Age settlement in Bruszczewo, dated to ca. 2000-1600 BC. The fragments were closely related to remains of buildings recorded in the course of excavations. Out of five instances of friction ridge impressions, two enabled the estimation of the age of the persons who had left them. It was determined that they probably were young people. The results cast new light on the role of children/youth in prehistory. ItemDwie drogi, dwa ruchy i zdrada – ukraińskie narracje o rewolucji na granicie i Ludowym Ruchu Ukrainy(Instytut Kultury Europejskiej Uniswersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2019) Jędraszczyk, KatarzynaThe article analyzes the Ukrainian narrative concerning the role of student protests in Ukraine in October 1990. This narrative competes with much wider knowledge about the so-called Rukh (People's Movement of Ukraine, Narodnyi Rukh Ukrajiny)and its leaders for the independence of Ukraine. Memory about the so-called the revolution on the granite is passed on by the participants of those events. Thanks to the inclusive narrative, also moderated by the state, the alternative representation of the past and historiography has no potential for a conflict of memory, it is only a different interpretation approach, agonizing about the possible way of developing Ukrainian democracy in the option of winning the key postulate of protesters (early elections in 1991). W artykule podjęto analizę ukraińskiej narracji dotyczącej roli studenckich protestów na Ukrainie w październiku 1990 roku. Konkuruje ona ze znacznie powszechniejszą wiedzą o działaniach tzw. Ruchu (Ludowego Ruchy Ukrainy) i jej liderów na rzecz niepodległości Ukrainy. Pamięć o tzw. rewolucji na granicie jest przekazywana przez uczestników tamtych wydarzeń. Dzięki narracji włączającej, moderowanej także przez państwo, alternatywna reprezentacja przeszłości i historiografii nie ma potencjału konfliktu pamięci, stanowi jedynie inne ujęcie interpretacyjne, dywagację na temat możliwej drogi rozwoju ukraińskiej demokracji w wariancie realizacji kluczowego postulatu protestujących - przedterminowych wyborów w 1991 roku. ItemІсторичні проблеми та политика пам’яті в польсько-українських стосунках (1991 – 2017)(ІПіЕНД ім. І.Ф. Кураса НАН України, 2018) Jędraszczyk, Katarzyna, Катажина ЄндращикThe article is an attempt to impose on the chronology of bilateral relations between Poland and Ukraine the analysis of the themes and political contexts related to historical policy emerging in these relations. The article analyzes the activities of Polish and Ukrainian authorities in the area of historical policy, related to the interpretation of difficult historical topics from the 20th century.Ukraine and Poland according to Troebst are countries where the culture of memory has become a field of conflict between two large political camps. The policy of memory in both countries may change as new ruling groups come to power. This also means that bilateral relations are vulnerable to instability. In Polish-Ukrainian relations after 1991 such a small dimension, first of all, related to the history of the Borderlands: fighting in Lviv and the role of Lviv Eaglets (Cemetery of the Lviv Eaglets), crimes of the OUN-UPA in Volyn and the issues of commemorating the victims and interpretation of the meaning of OUN-UPA and its leaders in the history of Poland and Ukraine.