Studia Prawa Publicznego, 2016, Nr 3 (15)


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Now showing 1 - 15 of 15
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    Partnerstwo innowacyjne – komentarz do artykułu 31 Dyrektywy 2014/24/UE
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2016) Różowicz, Konrad
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    Ściganie karne w Unii Europejskiej przed i po Traktacie z Lizbony – wybrane zagadnienia
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2016) Toruński, Michał; Gołba, Filip
    Current legislative activity of the European Union performed under Title V, Chapter 4 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union: “Judicial cooperation in criminal matters” is part of a wider process of internationalisation of criminal law. It shows a paradigm shift of this branch of law, which until now has, fi rst and foremost, been a product of national legal systems. The article discusses selected issues concerning the regulation of criminal prosecution under European Union law. Due to the fact that the present shape of this regulation is the result of a long process of numerous legislative activities as well as various non-legislative forms of international cooperation, the article is not limited to the discussion of the current state of the criminal prosecution in the EU, but takes into account the historical emergence of various institutions, both before and after the establishment of the European Union. Its fi rst part presents the historical development of instruments designed to cope with crime, which the European Community and then the European Union had at their disposal. This part has two objectives: to describe the diffi culties encountered when the fi rst attempts to coordinate the fi ght against crime at the European level were undertaken and to show the signifi cance of the progress that has been made in this area in recent years. After that, selected issues concerning the harmonisation of rules governing the procedural rights of suspects and defendants in criminal proceedings are discussed. The issue of minimum standards relating to penalties is also raised. The concluding part of the article assesses, whether the path of internationalization of criminal law chosen by the Member States in the post-Lisbon reality is justifi ed.
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    Obywatelska inicjatywa uchwałodawcza jako element partycypacji obywatelskiej w kontekście kondycji polskiej samorządności lokalnej na poziomie gmin
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2016) Brodziak, Łukasz
    The article aims to show the interdisciplinary character of citizens initiative. In the introductory part a defi nition of citizens initiative is given. The subsequent parts of the article prove its multi-aspect character. First, a citizen is defi ned as a subject authorised by law as well as the society to initiate local laws. Next a sociological and legal analysis of the mechanisms of citizens participation at the gmina (county) level is made. Participation is seen as a practical expression of the subjectivity of a citizen. The following are then analysed: social consultations, participatory budget, local referendum and a local budget which is also regarded as a form of participation. The next part describes citizens legislative initiative as a form of participation. It shows its position, reasons for its emergence and its consequences at the local level. After that there is an attempt to present in a model way the extent to which local communities have developed in Poland. It pinpoints the current problems and shows how they can be solved. In the next part mechanisms of local bodies are presented. Problems related to, among other things, local elections turnout, reducing supervision and control function, and the formation of local interest groups exercising continuous and concealed pressure on local bodies, thus infl uencing local laws. The conclusion of the article is that the condition of Polish democracy at a local level is not an easy research topic and the gminas have failed to develop communities of inhabitants that would pursue common interests. Individual citizens alienate themselves and care of own interests only, and this has an impact on local bodies and local law as well.
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    Podmiotowość prawnomiędzynarodowa korporacji międzynarodowych wyzwaniem dla systemu ochrony inwestycji zagranicznych
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2016) Kochowska, Ewelina
    This paper analyzes two issues: the current state of international investment law as to the question of the subjectivity of transnational corporations and whether this question contributes to changes in the system of protection of foreign investments. Transnational corporations have already some relevant attributes of the subjects of international law, although all we can say is that their international legal personality is incomplete, functional, relative and not independent. International legal personality of transnational corporations cannot be presumed and if it is for the purpose of assigning liability for infringements of the rules of jus cogens, this will not prejudge the subjectivity in the fi eld of the use of international investment law. If international legal subjectivity of a transnational corporation has been decided upon, the future of the already existing norms of international law regarding the protection of investments (including diplomatic protection, BIT provisions and multilateral international agreements) is not clear. In this system, the rights and obligations of states and transnational corporations are not balanced as this area of international law favours investors (and thus also transnational corporations). States and local communities are neither entitled to claim damages from the investor when such damages are caused by an investment or if they arise from violations of the vital interests of the local community, nor may they bring counterclaims against the complaint to arbitration tribunals. Common goals for the whole international community, for which the concept of international legal personality of transnational corporations could be developed, have not as yet been precisely articulated. Unlike it is the case of liability for the international law of jus cogens, there are no strong axiological reasons to develop this concept in international investment law.
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    Gwarancje proceduralne na wypadek wydalenia cudzoziemca w systemie Europejskiej konwencji praw człowieka
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2016) Mizerski, Rafał
    The author discusses the legal basis, the cope of application, the content and the concurrence of procedural guarantees in the event of an expulsion of an alien under the European Convention. These guarantees stem from Article 1 of Protocol No. 7, Article 4 of Protocol No. 4, Articles 13 and 34 of the Convention as well as from the concepts of positive obligations and tests of legality and necessity, developed in the case law of the Strasbourg Court. Guarantees under Article 1 of Protocol No. 7 and Article 4 of Protocol No. 4 are the only ones that are applicable regardless of whether an expulsion results in the violation of an alien’s rights or the limitation of the freedoms arising from the Convention. Moreover, they do not apply to extradition proceedings, whereas the other guarantees do. However, in the context of the guarantees resulting from Article 13 of the Convention and the concepts of positive obligations as well as the tests of legality and necessity, a common standard of procedural requirements in an event of an expulsion of an alien seems to have emerged. It includes the alien’s right to information on the specifi c reasons for expulsion; available remedies and a possibility of obtaining legal assistance; the right to submit arguments against expulsion; the right to be represented; the right to have the case reviewed; the right to an independent and impartial authority competent to decide in the case. In the event where an expulsion puts an alien in danger of irreversible damage to his/her rights, the person concerned should have, in addition, access to a remedy with automatic suspensive eff ect. This standard is also quite common to guarantees stemming from Articles 1 of Protocol No. 7 and Article 4 of Protocol No. 4. However, since “competent authority” under Article 1 of Protocol No. 7 need not be the authority with whom the fi nal decision on expulsion rests and because it is possible to expel an alien before the exercise of his/her rights under this Article, the author is of the opinion that the latter should apply only to expulsions that do not threaten conventional rights.
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    The administrative limitation of assemblies in Ukraine and Poland in the light of the international law regulations – some remarks on the Ukrainian road to democracy
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2016) Kołaczkowski, Bartosz; Sobolieva, Kateryna
    Przedmiotem opracowania jest umiejscowiona w kontekście uregulowań prawnomiędzynarodowych oraz orzecznictwa Europejskiego Trybunału Praw Człowieka analiza porównawcza kształtu administracyjnej reglamentacji zgromadzeń na Ukrainie i w Polsce. W jego pierwszej części dokonano analizy tych spośród wiążących Ukrainę i Polskę aktów prawa międzynarodowego, w których podejmowana jest problematyka zgromadzeń, Międzynarodowego Paktu Praw Obywatelskich i Politycznych, Europejskiej Konwencji o Ochronie Praw Człowieka i Podstawowych Wolnościach czy też Konwencji Ramowej o Ochronie Mniejszości Narodowych. Część druga dotyczy zagadnień konstytucyjnych gwarancji wolności zgromadzeń na Ukrainie oraz dopuszczalnych w prawie tego kraju ograniczeń tej wolności. Wreszcie trzecia część zawiera refl eksje na temat kształtu administracyjnoprawnej regulacji zgromadzeń w Polsce, obejmujące przede wszystkim zagadnienia definicji zgromadzenia, klasyfikacji zgromadzeń i wreszcie obowiązków organizatora oraz uprawnień porządkowych władz, takich jak np. możliwość rozwiązania zgromadzenia. W pracy wykazano między innymi, że wprawdzie na Ukrainie, podobnie jak w Polsce, wolność zgromadzeń gwarantowana jest konstytucyjnie, ale na tym podobieństwa się kończą. Trudno ocenić pozytywnie brak nowoczesnej ustawy, która zbiorczo regulowałaby zagadnienia zgromadzeń publicznych tak jak polska ustawa Prawo o zgromadzeniach. Wybiórcze stosowanie zupełnie nieprzystających do realiów państwa demokratycznego przepisów uchwalonych jeszcze w ZSRR, w połączeniu z konstytucyjnie wyrażonym prawem sądów do wprowadzania ograniczeń wolności zgromadzeń, sprzyja skrajnej arbitralności podejmowanych rozstrzygnięć, co niewątpliwie narusza istotę wolności. Problemem polskiej administracyjnoprawnej regulacji zgromadzeń są z kolei częste i nie zawsze przemyślane zmiany odpowiednich przepisów. Nie ulega jednak wątpliwości, że Polską regulację prawną można uznać za znacznie dojrzalszą.
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    Prawny status zawodu lekarza. Wybrane zagadnienia
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2016) Kosiński, Eryk
    The article deals with a very crucial question of the legal status of physicians in Poland. The question asked is whether a physician who works as a sole practitioner may be recognized as a person performing a liberal profession, a public trust profession (a category specifi c only as far as Polish domestic law concerned), or a regulated profession (according to Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifi cations). Consequently, fi rst the concepts of a liberal, regulated and public trust professions are analysed. Another important question to be answered is if physicians practicing as sole traders are undertakings in the meaning of the EU law and if they are what their status is. The vastest exclusion in terms of the subject and object of the legislation was provided by the Regulation on Industrial Law issued by Poland’s President on 7 June 1927 which excluded the activity conducted by physicians. Under Article 3 of the President’s Regulation the Commercial Code 27 June 1934, all liberal professions were also excluded from activities considered to be a form of entrepreneurship. This attitude changed in postwar Poland and the Act of 23 December 1988 on Economic Activity provided for no exclusion for any liberal profession from being regarded as economic activity. The Act of 19 November 1999 on Economic Activity excluded from its scope only entities that provided legal services (barristers and solicitors) and those rendering services in the area of industrial property. Today, under Polish law physicians are considered to be an undertaking in two situations: when they conduct their activities in the form of so-called ‘private practice’ (one-person undertaking), or when they conduct their practice within so-called ‘collective practice’ (partnership). They are not regarded as undertakings when they are employed by a medical institution or another medical entity on the basis of an employment contract. In such a case they fall under the provisions of the Act of 15 April 2011 on Medical Activities, but still keep the status of liberal profession.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego