ItemReformy szkolne w pierwszej połowie XIX wieku(2009) Pawelec, LidiaSchool reforms in the first half of the nineteenth century Summary The present text outlines the school reforms carried out in the first half of the nineteenth century. As the timeframe suggests, these reforms were launched and implemented by the then authorities of the Duchy of Warsaw and the Russian authorities administering the Russian part of partitioned Poland. The author attempts to indicate the most important goals and assumptions of the reforms as well as their immediate educational and social consequences. The text is far from being a comprehensive description of the problem but rather serves as an introduction to the substance of the issue under investigation and its political and economic conditioning. ItemHistoriografia pedagogiczna w czasopismach tradycyjnych i elektronicznych(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Sztobryn, SławomirPedagogical historiography in traditional print periodicals and electronic publications Summary Scientific and research periodicals play an extremely important part in popularizing (and promoting) results of research studies, though this role is not equally appreciated across different domains of science. This becomes apparent if we compare the number of traditional and electronic titles of periodicals in such disciplines as medicine, natural science and exact science on the one side, and those that represent the humanities, broadly understood, on the other. The advantage of electronic content in the former group is overwhelming. Nowadays, we use two terms in relation to periodicals available online and launched on the electronic platform. The terms make a distinction between a degree of their involvement in the cyber space. “Digitalization” means a certain transitory state between traditional periodicals in print and virtual publications; in other words, a product of “digitization” is an electronic copy (e.g. a scanned text) of a text originally published in print, whereas the notion of “digital authorship (the author as digital producer), in Polish: cyfryzacja” deals with an entirely electronic publication with specific properties underlined by multimedia and hypertext capabilities. Digital research information as an entirely new quality has not been yet appropriately appreciated. The history of education as a discipline of research does not have its own electronic platform that would offer peer-reviewed research papers in Open Access (OA), e-books or electronic document repositories. For the time being, the most recent Polish periodical within this discipline, i.e. Biuletyn Historii Wychowania, has only a front page, ToCs and a masthead available online, without access to full-text electronic content. ItemRola instytucji pozarządowych w opiece nad dzieckiem na Pomorzu Środkowym w latach 1945-1975 - zarys problemu(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Apanel, DanutaThe role of non-governmental organizations in child care in Middle Pomerania in the years 1945-1975 – an outline of the problem Summary The activity of NGOs in Middle Pomerania after the end of WWII to the times of political changes and economic transition can be divided into two characteristic and distinct stages, i.e. one until the year 1950, and the other covering the years from 1950 to the political breakthrough of 1989. In the first stage, the activities directed at well-being of the child and the family were mostly undertaken by the Worker’s Society of the Friends of Children (Polish: RTPD), the Peasants’ Society of the Friends of Children (ChTPD), Polish Red Cross (PCK), Central Committee for Welfare (CKOS), the Polish Women League and the Society for Pupils’ Hostels and Scholarships. The above organizations kept sanitary and medical facilities, educational and care institutions, including children’s homes, correctional houses, preventoria, day care rooms, pupils’ hostels and boarding houses, crèches and kindergartens, ran summer camps for children, field kitchens, hospitals, night shelters, training workshops, catering establishments, outpatient clinics, ambulance services, health care establishments and mother and child care units. According to the data available at the archives of the Society of the Friends of Children in Koszalin covering the years 1946–1949, included in annual reports of RTPD and ChTPD, these organizations provided care to about 8,300 children. CKOS attended to about 43,500 individuals, including children. The organization distributed clothing, footwear and medicine obtained within the framework of the structural assistance from the UN. According to data obtained from annual reports of the Polish Red Cross in Koszalin for the years 1945–1955, assistance was rendered to about 120,000 individuals. ItemFranciszek Majchrowicz (1858-1928) - pedagog i historyk wychowania. kilka uzupełnień do biografii(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Wałęga, AgnieszkaFranciszek Majchrowicz (1858–1928) – educator and historian of education. Some additional historical references related to the biography Summary Franciszek Majchrowicz was a renowned Lvov-based educator and a historian of education. Throughout many years of his professional career he was involved in teaching in secondary schools and teachers’ training colleges. At the same time, he was actively participating in educational initiatives as an activist. Majchrowicz was a co-editor of the periodical Rodzina i Szkoła [Family and School], co-operated with the Council of National Education in Galicia (Eastern Poland) and with the School Board of the Lvov province. His publishing output included numerous articles and pedagogical texts as well as historical and educational works, including one of the first textbooks for teaching history of education in teachers’ training colleges (with many editions throughout the years 1901-1924). Majchrowicz also published source materials for the history of Polish education, promoted the educational ideas of the Commission of National Education and attempted to develop the history of education into a coherent academic discipline for researchers and a subject in the national curriculum for educators. The hitherto available historical and educational literature lacks comprehensive and detailed information on his university education or professional training and qualifications. The present work attempts by no means to be exhaustive or to offer a comprehensive coverage of a full biography of Franciszek Majchrowicz as an educator and historian of education. It merely complements some facts and explanations that have already been published earlier, and provides some new information that may help resolve doubts concerning certain aspects of his professional career presented in the hitherto published body of works on the subject. It is mostly due to the archival material from Lvov (this mainly comprises students catalogues and minute books of doctoral examinations from the National District Archive), constituting the source base for the present work, that providing complete answers to such issues as the course of Majchrowicz’s studies, his doctoral dissertation procedure and the scope of his teacher’s examination, have become possible. The above source material made it also possible to conclude with certain remarks regarding the masters Majchrowicz had in great esteem and their influence upon research and academic interests of the Lvov-based educator and historian of education. ItemKorepetytor w nauczaniu domowym na ziemiach polskich doby zaborów(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Nawrot-Borowska, MonikaPrivate tutor and in-home tutoring in Polish lands during the partition period Summary Despite recent research on home-based education and teaching of children in the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries, the subject of home and private tutors has yet not been properly addressed. Though there are more or less extensive mentions on the subject in question in articles devoted to home tutors or home tutelage, they do not, however, delve deeper into the investigation of the problem. Therefore, the present work attempts to characterize this position of appointed, or hired, teachers who were involved in the process of education of children in Polish families in time of partitions. The main problem is approached from the two following perspectives – the aim of the article is to: 1) indicate more precisely the status of private tutors, their social background, goals to be attained by them, their duties, responsibilities and conditions of work, i.e. a determination of their real participation in the education of children from Polish families during the time under scrutiny; and also 2) to show the contemporary standpoint expressed by the then educational columnists and journalists on the very idea of private tutoring and private tutors, as well as their postulates, recommendations to be followed and advice concerning hired teaching staff. The source material for the present analysis of the capacity and function of private tutors has been provided by relevant educational literature for professionals and parents written in the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, professional educational periodicals and women’s and family magazines of the time. The source materials provide an excellent base for a determination of the extent and the scope of the interest of the contemporary columnists and journalists in this group of private tutors and private tutelage at the time, but also present the attitudes towards the phenomenon manifested by the general public. The analysis is supplemented with additional material excerpted from contemporary memoirs and diaries that serve here as a useful illustration of the reality and practice in the actual teaching process of appointed tutors in the times of national freedom struggle in Poland. ItemPolityczna i pedagogiczna aktywność Janusza Jędrzejewicza na emigracji (1939-1951)(2009) Stelmasiak, IzabelaThe exile years of Janusz Jędrzejewicz (1939-1951), a prominent and reputed educator of the inter-war Poland, deserve much of our attention. After the outbreak of the war, Jędrzejewicz initially took some effort to return to active military duty but these attempts failed to be successful. Along with the evacuation of the government, the Jędrzejewiczs had to leave Poland for Romania and had to remain there as exiles. Dull, everyday routine in exile in Romania was interspersed with Jędrzejewicz’s involvement in teaching maths and in meetings with fellow exiles, the followers of Józef Piłsudzki. The years from July 1940 until the end of the year, Jędrzejewicz and his family spent in Turkey. In the dire straits he was in at the time, to minimize stress and inconvenience in housing, he managed to find some balance and relief in his political and social activity. Jędrzejewicz managed to establish contacts with other exiles, notably Tatar, Caucasian and Ukrainian exiles. As a result of the meetings with the non-Polish émigrés, the concept of the so-called “Międzymorze – Intermarum”, a proposed federation of countries stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea, emerged. The years between 1940 and 1942 Jędzerzejowicz and his family spent in Tel-Aviv in Palestine. The local Polish political and military circles were closely associated with former “colonels” and Gen. Sławoj-Składkowski’s supporters and were labelled as “steadfast” or “unyielding”. In a straightforward way, the leadership of this group fell to Jędrzejewicz as the one who was the highest ranking Pilsudski-ite among them. The group became the core of the political movement founded upon a concept that underlined the ideas of the late marshal and represented their supporters in the Near East. Jędrzejewicz was very active in writing articles on social and political subjects and in giving lectures, including notably the one delivered on March 19, 1941 and entitled “On the occasion of the anniversary of the name day of First Marshal of Poland” He was also involved in talks with leaders of local Jewish and Arabic population. The presented concept of “Intermarum” was received with interest by politicians in exile from the Baltics, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. It also formed an alternative to the realpolitik exercised by the government in exile. An important initiative of the group of the Pilsudski-ites was to publish Biuletyn Informacyjny (News Bulletin), and then to transform it into the official monthly Na Straży (On guard). The editor-in-chief of the periodical was Jędrzejewicz himself (from issue 18th onwards). In the course of time, still in Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem, the Piłsudski-ite groups grew more and more members. These circles, physically far from the government in exile in London and its influence, were thus more independent and formed a sort of a mutation and an alternative to the London-based Związek Pracy Państwowej (State Labour Union). Under the leadership of Janusz Jędrzejewicz, the Piłsudzki-ites in Palestine organized themselves in Związek Pracy dla Państwa (Union of Work for the State). The Polish political scene in exile was going through many dramatic changes and transformations. Political tension was aggravated further by Prof. Kot’s action who had returned from the Soviet Union in mid-1942. He perceived the activity of some of Polish exiles in the Near East as politically detrimental and anti-government. As for Prof Kot’s intense dislike for Jędrzejewicz, it was guided by the two following reasons: the latter’s influence in circles overtly reluctant to accept the stance adopted by the government represented by Gen. Sikorski, and, secondly, his personal grudge and resentment towards the former minister of religious affairs and education (Polish: MriOP). The political situation of the years 1944-1946 was decisive in creating the atmosphere less negative and more cooperative, and ultimately led to the emergence of the idea of a common platform for reconciliation and understanding for all splinter groups of Piłsudski followers. The common denominator for all was to be the Independence League, a political party in exile, of which, until 1947, Jędrzejewicz knew very little about. From 1942 the Jędrzejewiczs lived in Jerusalem, where they enjoyed good rapport and relations with local Arab leaders. Despite some health problems, Jędrzejewicz engaged himself in a series of lectures and continued to edit the periodical Na Straży. Soon, however, he was forced to step down this post due to aggravating health problems. Towards the end of 1946, the former prime minister was transferred to the reserve. This helped Jędrzejewicz to obtain a decision to be moved to Great Britain. Before he left Jerusalem, however, he spent half a year with his family in harsh conditions of El Kantara field hospital, which was also a transit camp for war refugees. The circles of the London-based Pilsudski-ites were very much counting on Jędrzejewicz’s Związek Pracy dla Państwa. The promoters of the Independence League also viewed the former prime minister, who was a one-time trustworthy aide to Marshal Piłsudski, as their potential leader. Jędrzejewicz himself was quite aware of his assets and the position he enjoyed within the hierarchy of values as a Piłsudski-ite and, despite bad health, was ready to support the League. In the first half of 1948, with the help of Jędrzejewicz, the fundamentals of the political program of the Poland’s Independence League were established. However, the following infightings and quarrels as to who was to head the League made Jędrzejewicz step down from the position of the leader of the League. From that time on, his activity was limited to writing articles and the participation in the work for the board of trustees of the London Piłsudski Institute. Jędrzejewicz’s last years of his life were undoubtedly influenced by his poor health (1948-1951). He was repeatedly hospitalized, which was taken advantage of by his political opponents in 1948. His physical state was very much influenced by his mental condition, which was a result the victimization and persecution he experienced between 1939-1943. An emotional shock for him was undoubtedly the news about his son who had been shot by the Germans in 1943, and the death of his former wife, Maria Stattler, in 1944. Eventually, all his energy was directed at administrative and research work. With his participation, or at his initiative, four research institutes were established at the time. The intention was to conduct historical or political science research there. Janusz Jędrzejewicz died on March 16th 1951. In exile, he was unfortunate enough to experience ostracism from fellow Poles, both as a politician and as a man. Still, he was far from shunning the world and, with dignity, he carried out his mission of executing the tasks once set by his Commander. As an exile, he was just as well a good representative of a Piłsudski-ite with a characteristic appropriate system of values that determined his life style. The ongoing internalization of the imponderables of his beloved Commander was though respected in the multi-faceted realities of Polish exile life. ItemIdee Fryderyka Nietschego w polskiej myśli o wychowaniu w latach 1883-1939(2009) Dworakowska, KatarzynaThe article discusses outstanding interpretations of the works by F. Nietzsche as represented in Polish educational thought during the “Young Poland” period and the following interwar period. The study aims at elucidating the pedagogical dimensions of Nietsche’s idea in the interpretation of the two periods and at identifying the space within which the concept of the author of Thus spake Zarathustra still remains topical and current. The section devoted to the “Young Poland” period includes an analysis of Jan Kurnatowski’s book Nietsche. Studia i tłumaczenia [Nietzsche. Studies and translations], the one and only work of the period that extracts from the output of the German thinker its strictly pedagogical reflections. The next issue to be presented is a discussion on the journalistic writing that was engaged in Nietzschean themes that would be of interest to the present-day pedagogy of culture. Interpretation trends that aimed to discover a universal remedy for the crisis in culture and humanity in the works of the author of Untimely Meditations turned out to be dominant at the time. An approach to the interpretation of Nietzsche’s thought in a wide context of social and cultural interactions made it possible to conclude that the category of Bildungsphilister, castigated by the philosopher, reaches much further beyond just criticism of the contemporary model of education due to the tenability of the notion of Bildumg as the accumulation of cultural capital as it was viewed by Pierre Bourideu. In conclusion of the discussion on the modernist period, the author presents postulations that indicate a need for a shift in the reception emphasis towards directions hitherto unexplored. The section devoted to the interwar period presents the interpretation of the pedagogical thought of Nietzsche presented at the inauguration lecture (on the occasion of Antoni Bolesław Dobrowolski’s acceptance of the chair of pedagogy at Wolna Wszechnica Polska [Free Polish University]) delivered by the professor. The presentation is followed by a discussion on the different approaches presented in various pedagogical encyclopaedias and in Ludwik Chamaj’s Kieruki i prądy pedagogiki współczesnej [Trends and directions in modern pedagogy]. The latter approaches present Nietzsche as an instigator and a prime mover in contemporary intellectual currents and trends and discuss his influence upon individual philosophers, extracting from his philosophical output the notions of “individualism”, “criticism of the traditional educational system” and “irrationalism”. The journalistic writings under investigation fit well into this particular interpretative trend. The discussion on the interwar period is complemented with a reference to a booklet written by Stanisław Besser and entitled: Bohaterowie myśli. Nietsche i Weininger [Heroes of Thought. Nietzsche and Weininger] and an analysis of the article written by Marian Wachowski Wspomnienia z pism pedagogicznych Nietzschego i Grundtviga [Pedagogical reflections in the writings of Nietzsche and Grundtvig], being the only Polish contribution to the discussion on the series of lectures by Nietzsche Ueber die Zukunft unserer Bildungsanstalten. ItemXIII wiek - stulecie przełomu w dziejach średniowiecznego szkolnictwa w Polsce(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2009) Ratajczak, KrzysztofThe 13th century in the Piast Poland was marked by a feudal fragmentation of the Polish Kingdom and was heavily burdened with the deepening political disruption of the country resulting in economic and military weakening of the component principalities (dukedoms) of the country. This, in the next century, eventually led to some of the provinces falling into dependencies upon the Kingdom of Bohemia. However, what was destructive and divisive from the perspective of political history, offered a stimulating dimension for the history of culture and education, for the period in question was characterized by a multiplication of chanceries throughout the whole of the century, which, as a result, increased a demand for literate individuals. Colonization based on the Magdeburg Law (a set of German town laws) and the influx of foreigners into Polish lands: chief settlers (German: der Lokator), friars and monks from newly established Cistercian, Dominican and Franciscan orders as well as knights in service of ducal courts or representing military orders, in short, people deeply rooted in Western legal tradition, capable of making use of documents or written legal codification, boosted the phenomenon even more. The development of towns, trade relations between the principalities as well as international trade facilitated the emergence of capital that, alternatively, could also be used in founding schools of all kind. A considerable influence upon the following leaping increase in the number of schools and the quality of teaching standards in the country came from ecclesiastical synods and councils whose legislation regulated many relevant activities and issues related to management of schools, levels of education for applicants for teaching posts, or, more broadly, created appropriate intellectual climate favourable for further development of the schooling system. A number of the above factors, as well as other factors discussed in the body of the article, were decisive in making the thirteenth century a particularly significant period in the historical process of the development of Polish literary and educational culture.