Studia Metodologiczne, 2013, nr 30

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    Demokratyzacja debaty publicznej nad medycyną niekonwencjonalną
    (Wydawnictwo UAM, 2013) Nowak, Andrzej W.
    Article discusses problem of public debate on alternative medicine. Following B. Latour author claim that our public sphere still can be described by so called „modernist constitution”. Latour holds that distinction between political representation belonging to society and epistemological representation belonging to nature is one of the modern constitution’s most important dichotomies. In article author claims that discussion with alternative medicine should not be conducted from theoretical position (philosophy of science), because is still entangled in modernist presumptions. Instead author propose „lowering the tone” (S. Shapin) and focuses on social practice. Author suggest that we should try to think about alternative medicine outside of „modernist constitution”. Social Studies of Science shows clearly that if we succeed in this task,alternative medicine can be a useful allies in a process of democratization of science and medicine.
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    Aspekty normatywne i metodologiczne ekologii stosowanej - na styku nauki i polityki
    (Wydawnictwo UAM, 2013) Dereniowska, Małgorzata
    The urgency of environmental protection generates a growing demand for scientific information. The science-policy interface raises new challenges for the conventional model of the role of science. Consequently, the methodological status of some ecological concepts is under transformation. The normative characteristics of these concepts entail serious practical consequences, raising doubts about their possible misuse to legitimize political interests. This paper analyzes the above problem in relation to the concepts of ecosystem health, ecological stability, and integrity. The aim is to illuminate value-based components and investigate the relationship between the scientific and extrascientific components of these concepts.
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    O pojęciu bioetyki. Refleksja nad jej genezą i statusem metodologicznym
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Paś, Andrzej
    Abstrakt Gdy dokonamy analizy problematyki stosunkowo nowo powstałej dyscypliny, jaką jest bioetyka, to jednocześnie zauważymy, iż w swoim przedmiocie badań (zachowanie moralne człowieka) pokrywa się ustaleniami metodologicznymi z etyką. Jednakże wydaje się, iż w tej kwestii istnieje dosyć zasadnicza rozbieżność. Skoro bioetyka ma sięgać do podstaw życia biologicznego człowieka, to musi ująć w swojej analizie całą gamę rozwoju zachowania społecznego, którego finalnym „rezultatem” jest kategoria osoby ludzkiej- interpretowana jako istota bioetyczna.
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    Wykonawcze teorie konfabulacji i ich krytyka
    (Wydawnictwo UAM, 2013) Reuter, Magdalena
    Confabulations are ill-grounded beliefs. One of the types of confabulation are memory confabulations. A lot of contemporary theories of confabulations are based on executive processes. It is said that confabulations are consequence of dysfunction of two systems: (1) epistemic system and (2) executive system (Hirstein, 2005). Dysfunction of the second system means that belief or mental representation is not corrected. Philosopher Dalla Barba argues with executive theories of confabulation, because he claims that acceptance of the thesis about existence of unconscious monitoring processes leads to homunculus paradox. He proposes new explanation of memory confabulations in categories of temporal consciousness and knowledge consciousness. In the article I argue that not all of the cognitive scientists think that the concept of homunculus is inadequate to the description of the brain functioning. In this connection Dalla Barba’s critique not necessarily reveals actual weaknesses of executive theories of confabulations.
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    Problemy metodologiczne w badaniach nad związkiem pomiędzy religijnością a zdrowiem
    (Wydawnictwo UAM, 2013) Pawlikowski, Jakub
    The article presents the most important methodological problems, which appear in the research on the relationship between religiosity and health. It describes matters concerning the definition of religiosity, and spirituality and the research methods used in measuring them (indicating those that would be most appropriate for the Polish society). Finally, the article discusses the difficulties concerning the cause-and-effect relationship between religiosity and health, and the difficulties connected to creating a theoretical model explaining the mechanisms of influence of religiosity on health.
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    Redukcjonistyczne i organicystyczne intuicje w wyjaśnianiu karcynogenezy
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Juś, Marcin
    Two competing theories of carcinogenesis are functioning in biomedical sciences: the mutation theory (SMT) and the tissue theory (TOFT). The first part of the article presents the basic assumptions of both theories and summarizes the philosophical debate between its proponents. This debate is analyzed in the works of Ch. Malaterre [2007] and J. A. Macrum [2005]. According to these authors, the genetic theory presupposes reductionism and the tissue theory – organicism. The second part of the article analyzes the debate in question in the light of some general views about reduction developed by T. Jones [2004] and K. Paprzycka [2008]. I suggest that from the philosophical point of view we have no reason to think that the reduc-tionist explanation of carcinogenesis is exhaustive or that it is the only appropriate explanation.
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    Pojęcie choroby psychicznej w fenomenologicznej perspektywie
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Kapusta, Andrzej
    The article presents ongoing discussions on the concept of mental illness, especially its phenomenological approach. The point of departure is Karl Jaspers’ Allgemeine Psychopatologie - important inspiration for the critics of the contemporary psychiatric classifications and biomedical explanations (biological, psychological) that, in general, ignores essential dimensions of morbid experience and don’t regard illness as an action failure of “ordinary doing”. Present-day dispute over the nature of mental illness with such names as Szasz, Boorse, Fulfors reveals a diversity of mental symptoms and its normative character. In spite of the possibilities of multilevel analysis of human’s psychopathology we consider patient’s feelings and experience. Svenaeus’ understanding of mental disorder is presented to demonstrate existential and experiential dimensions of disorder. The analysis of embodied (inspired by Merleau-Ponty’s research) aspects of disorders attempt to overcome the limits between mental and somatic elements of psychiatric disorder.
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    Od objawu do działania. Problemy metodologiczne procedury diagnostyczno-terapeutycznej w medycynie
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Banasiak, Mariusz
    The purpose of this article is to identify the main methodological problems arising in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. I will discusse the issues relating to the characteristics of diagnostics tests, measurements scales, algorithms for clinical decision making and the fundamental postulates of EBM concept.
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    Złożoność i różnorodność pojęć choroby
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Sak, Jarosław
    The article discusses methodological problems of philosophical reflection on the concept of disease its complexity and diversity. Presentation of different aproaches is intended to justify the arguments put forward in the first part of the article. According to my account philosophical concepts of disease should be analyzed based on three teoretical perspectives: anthropological, epistemological and axiological.
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    Czy życie może być oparte na arsenie? Błędy w badaniach nad bakteriami GFAJ-1
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mmickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2013) Rzymski, Piotr; Poniedziałek, Barbara
    Life constitutes of six essentials elements: carbon, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus. However, “shadow biosphere” theory assumes the existence of alternative life pathway that uses radically different biochemical and molecular processes than currently known life. Paper by Wolfe-Simon et al. (2011) published in high-profiled journal Science described bacterial species GFAJ-1 with ability not only to maintain life processes in high extracellular concentrations of arsenic but also to substitute phosphorus with arsenic in DNA. This report caused a number controversies related to applied methodology and interpretation of obtained results. Case of Wolfe-Simon et al. publication demonstrates the important role which is played by criticism against obtained results as well as concern for correction of applied methods.
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    Założenia epistemologiczne wykorzystania teorii zbiorów przybliżonych w ocenie i selekcji informacji klinicznych
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2013) Rzepiński, Tomasz
    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most basic intuitions that are connected with using rough set theory when evaluating clinical data. Furthermore, the article examines the espistemological assumptions that have to be made when the method is applied in formulating decision algorithims in clinical practice.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego