ItemBibliografia historii wychowania, szkolnictwa i myśli pedagogicznej w Polsce za rok 2009 (z uzupełnieniami za lata poprzednie)(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2012) Gruca, Anna ItemDziałalność naukowa Jana Kuchty(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2012) Wnęk, JanThe article presents the scholarly activity of Jan Kuchta in the interwar period and discusses the contents of his articles and books. The author discusses in detail the essential contents of the following books: Książka zakazana jako przedmiot zainteresowań młodzieży w okresie dojrzewania („A Forbidden Book As an Object of Interest of Adolescent Youth”); Dziecko włóczęga (“A Child Vagabond”); Nowe kierunki i dążenia współczesnej katolickiej pedagogiki [na tle obrazu chaosu we współczesnym wychowaniu] (“New Trends and Endeavours of Catholic Pedagogics [on the Background of the Image of Chaos in Modern Upbringing])”. These books, as well as other Kuchta’s works, popularized a number of problems from various fields of knowledge, such as ethnography, pedagogy, psychology and sociology. However, these were not creative treaties constituting a significant contribution to the Polish science. ItemSergiusz Hessen jako publicysta „Kultury i Wychowania” w latach 1933–1939(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2012) Boczoń, Magdalena LidiaThe specific character of the interwar period promoted the development of specialist magazines, among others, also magazines from the field of pedagogy. Those periodicals published discussions and disputes which were a creative contribution of Polish thinkers, scholars and teachers-practicians into the process of the restoration of Poland by means of improving the quality of educational activities. Kultura i Wychowanie (“Culture and Education”) was one of such magazines which owed its high specialist level mainly to its chief editor – Bogdan Suchodolski. Kultura i Wychowanie attracted a number of eminent authors, including Sergiusz Hessen. The presented article focuses on the works of this Russian pedagogue published in the discussed magazine and, first of all, his contribution into the construction of the theoretical foundations of the Polish pedagogy of culture from the period of the Second Polish Republic. The articles of Hessen, published in B. Suchodolski’s periodical, were an elaboration of the philosophy which the author presented earlier in his book Podstawy pedagogiki (“The Foundations of Pedagogy”). They were also preparatory considerations to his subsequent book entitled O sprzecznościach i jedności wychowania (“On Contradictions and Unity of Education”). The subjects of these articles concern two areas: the essence and meaning of Weltanschaung and the role of the concept of general education. The author of the article specifies in S. Hessen’s works published in the magazine Kultura i Wychowanie a number of ideas and concepts which contributed to the formation of the theoretical foundations of the Polish pedagogy of culture in the interwar period. They included: – a concept of a teacher fulfilling a role of a liberating authority; the liberating and upbringing education; the idea of “acquiring” personality via “acquiring” one’s own Weltanschaung; a constant tension between community and individualism; co-creation of culture by individual people as the main factor of its development; the manifestation of the layers of existence at the subsequent stages of education. ItemDziewięćdziesięciolecie powstania uniwersytetu ludowego w Dalkach(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2012) Maliszewski, TomaszThe article commemorates the 90th anniversary of the origin of the first peasant boarding high school based on the Scandinavian model. The author presents the endeavours of the members of People’s Libraries Society and its president – priest Antoni Ludwiczak – connected with the formation of the Great-Polish folk university. The process started already before World War I and was successfully completed in the autumn of 1921 when this educational institution began to function in Dalki in the vicinity of Gniezno. The final part of this paper is an attempt to answer two questions – the first one concerning the true significance of the high school in Dalki in the history of the Polish education of the adults in the 20th century; the second question refers to some doubts that may appear after the institution in Dalki was granted the title of the first Polish folk university. ItemOd znaku „Polski Walczącej” po hasło „FaceBóg” – rola polskiego graffiti w latach 1942–2011(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2012) Nowak-Kluczyński, KonradAgainst the general opinion the history of graffiti goes back to the beginnings of civilization. There are numerous examples of graffiti, for instance the inscriptions hollowed with a chisel found on the ancient household artifacts or on the walls. The inscriptions had an informative function but they were also magical. The phenomenon of spray art was widespread in the 1960s and the beginning of the Polish taggers subculture was in the 1980s, although one can find street art during the Second World War. But it is usually neglected or disregarded in the Polish literature. The Anchor – the sign of “Fighting Poland”, was placed on pavements, walls, notice boards or train stops of the occupied country. It was the sign of the fight for freedom and independence. As the years passed, the Polish reality was changing and the role of graffiti also changed. Now, it expresses itself in slogans, appeals, messages, drawings, portraits or murals. The aim of the work is to show the role of the Polish graffiti between 1942 and 2011. The author analyses graffiti in a number of aspects and throughout many years. The author identifies Polish spray art with teenage rebellion, sense of humor, political engagement, commentary or the negation of reality. Moreover, the article focuses on social, psychological or urban aspects of the examined phenomenon and identifies it with widespread modern hip-hop culture. ItemDzieje szkolnictwa gromady Mścice (1954–1972) na tle przemian oświatowych(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2012) Skonieczny, TomaszOn the basis of the archival material, the article presents the process of formation and development of Polish schools in Mścice commune against the background of the post-war educational transformations in Poland (until 1972). The author focuses on the problems that accompanied the transformations, such as: the lack of the teaching personnel (especially qualified), numerous changes of offices, the insufficiency of funds, of equipment and housing as well as the subordination of schools to the communist ideology which dominated in Poland at that time. Furthermore, the article presents the reforms connected with the educational system between 1954–1972 and their impact upon the teaching personnel and the material base. The final caesura of the article coincides with the end of Mścice commune. ItemSzkolnictwo zawodowe w Częstochowie w latach 1945–1989. Zarys problematyki(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2012) Wrona, IzabelaThe process of making the educational system public and its democratization after the Second World War was reflected, to a large extent, in the vocational education. The development of this kind of education became possible after the state had taken over the basic branches of economy, which had an influence upon easier access to different types and levels of employment. This complex process rendered the social advancement of the working class possible. The beginnings of this professional advancement date back not only to the years of the Second World War but also to the period between the First World War and the Second World War when Janusz Jędrzejewicz passed a bill which changed the attitude towards the vocational education. The social and cultural development of the broad masses removed the obstacles standing in the way to the higher levels of education by making many procedures accessible, among others: free education, development of the system of scholarships and boarding schools, removing blind alleys in the educational system and, first of all, creating a complex system of schools for the working people. The school system which was implemented at that time was treated as an example during the first years after the Second World War. ItemŻycie codzienne nauczycieli szkół powszechnych w Okręgu Mazurskim w świetle wspomnień i pamiętników (część I)(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2012) Radziszewska, MariaThe article concerns the problem of public school teachers’ daily lives in the region of Masuria. The analysis has included such components of everyday life as: travel to Warmia and Masuria, the reasons for choosing the profession, education, work areas, work conditions and methods as well as the forms of alimentation in the school. The issue of teachers’ daily lives deserves special attention because of a specific situation of Polish education in Warmia and Masuria in the school years 1944/1945–1945/1946. Teachers were mainly engaged in organizing the basic conditions for functioning of Polish schools in order to promote the Polish language among the youth and children of different nationalities and cultures. Their daily lives were influenced by determining the final border of the District of Masuria, the action of managing this land and the constant risk and problems with the staff, rooms and money. The article does not only discuss teachers’ daily professional lives (Part I) but also their personal lives (Part II). There is certainly a need for broader studies by using a variety of source materials. In order to present the issue, the author has used mainly sources of an autobiographical nature – memories and diaries. Item„Synu mój najmilszy…”. Życie i edukacja Stanisława Mikołaja z Lubomirskich Tretera(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2012) Kowalczyk, Małgorzata EwaThe author of the article presents the contents of an interesting treaty written in November 1785 in a mansion house in Mikołajów—situated in the Sandomierz area – by Stanisław Treter of the Lubomirskis (1744–1833), the chamberlain of the King Stanisław August Poniatowski. The purpose of the treaty was the presentation of life and education of his son Stanisław Mikołaj (1776–1861). The work devoted and dedicated to his, then nine-year-old, son, was written in a form of letters, very popular in the period of the Enlightenment. The letters are an interesting contribution to the history of upbringing, education, fatherhood, motherhood, childhood, travel and even medicine. They are a specific “voice of the epoch” reflecting the lifestyle, values, concerns and joys of the people of the Polish Enlightenment. ItemMiejsce nauczania historii w pijarskich profesoriach(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2012) Taraszkiewicz, JacekStanisław Konarski, while introducing the reform of the Piarist schools, began from changing the profile of the education of the monks, who, according to the rules and constitutions of the order were supposed to be teachers. The sources concerning the handbooks used in the education of the future history professors in Rzeszów are unknown The source data regarding the preparation of monks for their teaching profession may be obtained mostly on the basis of Ordinationes Visitationis Apostolicae... approved by the authorities of the monastic order and the Pope as late as in 1754. The Ordinationes Visitationis Apostolicae...., sometimes called “school regulations”, dedicated its third part to the problems connected with the education of the Piarist orders. The reformed system of the monks’ preparation for their future work assumed two years of noviciate, followed by three years of “profesorium”, where the monks should continue their education. The seminarists, in the period of their five year long education, learned, among others, history, which they were supposed to teach later as Piarist teachers. The historical material embraced both sacred and secular history. The readings for the future teachers in the field of history were the ancient classical works, the works of Polish historiographers and also modern works from the 16th, 17th and even 18th century. In the Piarist “profesoria” the ancient, national and general modern history was taught. However, history was still supposed to support rhetoric, providing speakers with examples confirming their erudition. The regulations concerning “profesoria” emphasised the fact that the greatest benefit of history consisted in showing the youth examples of civic virtues and vices contributing to the ruin of their Motherland. ItemPolityka oświatowa władz(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2012) Kahl, EdytaThe problems discussed in the article concern the educational policy in Poland in the first years after World War II (1944-1948). The article presents the educational concepts and postulates of different political fractions and teachers’ circles, which already before the end of the War had formulated their own educational programmes. The discussions about the shape of the post-war educational system, particularly the organization of schools, the school structure, the ideological foundations, the syllabus, school handbooks and teachers’ training, were carried out, among others, between the representatives of the National Democrats, Christian-national groups, political parties, teachers’ organizations and school administration. Their attitudes to many problems varied considerably, and thus, the situation required social debate and confrontation of opinions. The quality of those discussions, the style in which the educational problems were solved as well as the direction of the structural and ideological transformations in the post-war educational system, were significantly influenced by the geopolitical post-war conditions and a strong position of the Left, consolidated by the Soviets, in the policy of the Polish state. In the expansive struggle for the political leadership in Poland, the Left used different forms of pressure and terror in order to eliminate the opposition. To achieve social legitimization for its pseudo-democratic activities, the Left undertook attempts to encourage other groups to co-operate. Particularly, the communists tried to attract cultural elites, including teachers, who they wanted to use to start the process of rebuilding social consciousness according to the rules of the ideology of Marxism and Leninism. These monopolistic ambitions, in the first years after World War II, were reflected in the destruction of the underground state and the development of administrative structures of the totalitarian system. As far as the educational system is concerned, the policy of the Left was manifested in more and more apparent actions taken to subordinate school to the communists’ interests, thus including education into the process of the transformation of the political system. All those activities, were part of the phenomenon of structural Sovietization, formed the foundations for the ideological offensive, planned by the communists and conducted on a massive scale after the formation, in 1948, of the monopolistic Stalinian party - PZPR (Polish United Workers’ Party). ItemDobroczynność względem sierot na ziemiach polskich(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2012) Domańska, JoannaSince the baptism of Poland up to 1918, the social care of orphans was diversified. Until the annexations, the care of parentless children in the Polish territories had been environmental and stemmed from voluntary and charitable actions taken up mostly by the Church. The creation of children wards in hospitals and shelters, and the establishment of children’s households in Warsaw as a result of father G. Baudounin’s initiative, might be considered as prototype actions in the complete institutional care of orphaned children. However, during the time of annexations, the situation of orphans became significantly diversified because it depended on the invaders’ policy and the citizens’ activity. Thus, on the one hand, it was created by the occupying country, on the other, it was shaped by tradition. In the territories of each of the conquerors there were periods of liberalization of law, which rendered it possible, at least to some degree, to follow Polish concepts. These were mostly based on philanthropy, charity religious groups, associations and individuals. It needs to be stated that at the beginning of the 21st century, in all of the partitioned territories, the orphanages were governed by obsolete regulations although tried out in other countries. In each of the annexed parts of Poland, the educational and caring actions stemmed from the acquired legislative system. Under the Austrian occupation it was the commune that had the duty of taking care of the parentless children as it was stated in the act passed on 3rd December 1863. In the Prussian part of Poland, the commune’s duty of taking care of the orphans was stated in the act passed in July 1870. It is worth mentioning that the legislative in Prussia was very similar to the Austrian one. The only difference between them was their effectiveness – it was far more efficient in the Prussian province. Under the Russian invasion the regulations concerning the orphanages were quite different. Since the resolution from 1817, the public care of orphans relied on the good will of the society. It was not until the ruling from 1870 that the city councils of public philanthropy, supervising such institutions, were brought to life. 20 At the turn of the 19th century in Poland, especially among social and educational activists, the problem of children’s care became more popular. The necessity of providing care through social actions based on the law was discerned. During World War I, the problem of orphanhood achieved a new dimension, the so-called war orphanhood. It was not effectively taken care of until the end of the war. ItemDzieciństwo w mieście na ziemiach polskich w XVI–XVIII wieku(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk we współpracy z Zakładem Historii Wychowania, WSE UAM, 2012) Żołądź-Strzelczyk, DorotaThe issues of a child and childhood in the Polish territories have been neglected by historians for a long time. One of the reasons for this situation was the lack of appropriate sources for such studies. On one hand, the sources for analysing the history of childhood are relatively scarce; on the other hand, the sources that exist do not often provide much information. Thus, in order to reconstruct the functioning of a child in those times a researcher must confront numerous sources concerning various aspects of town life. The sources include the legal sources (statutes, constitutions) as well as court, iconographic, school, personal/private, statistical, archeological and material sources. Their diversity and informative value depends on the size and wealth of a particular town. Bigger and more affluent cities produced more sources but they also did more for children, especially those who found themselves in a difficult situation – abandoned, orphaned or harmed.