ItemSpotkania w Paragrafie(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Swaczyna, Hanna ItemStudencki Punkt Informacji Prawnej ‘Klinika Prawa – Klinika Praw Dziecka’ Wydziału Prawa i Administracji Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Sęczkowska, Aleksandra ItemMakiawelizm w filozofii polityki i życiu publicznym(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Brzechczyn, Krzysztof ItemStrona tytułowa / Title page(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) ItemFilozofia Publiczna i Edukacja Demokratyczna, Tom 5 (2016) Nr 1 – Spis treści / Contents(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) ItemKilka uwag o teorii znaczenia Kazimierza Ajdukiewicza(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Tomza, AnnaThe current discourse in the philosophy of law and philosophy of language is focused on one question – what is the proper meaning of the concept of meaning? The main problem in this reflections is a definition of a term ‘meaning’. Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz, the most renown Polish logician, which analyzed this problem, present the definition of ‘meaning’ as a proper understanding of the sense of the directives. Many current philosophers take this part of Ajdukiewicz’s work to demonstrate the cognitive part of the philosophy of law and especially the philosophy of language. In the Polish theory of law this issue is overlooked. In my opinion Ajdukiewicz was a creator of the philosophical concept ‘meaning’, and this article will consider the possibility that the idea of directive concept of ‘meaning’ and the conception of meaning belongs rather to the philosophy of language than constitutes the theory of logic. ItemEdukacja na rzecz zwierząt i ich praw. Uwagi w kontekście dyskursu o przemocy wobec zwierząt(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Helios, JoannaThe purpose of this article is to present the issues of violence against animals. This text is educational in nature. Sometime in our society violence against animals is often marginalized. Humanitarianism and animal welfare are pushed into the background. It is therefore worth considering the causes of animal cruelty. ItemWegetarianizm we współczesnych religiach światowych. Zarys problemu(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Jedlecka, WiolettaA purpose of this article is expressing the very interesting issues concerning the ritual sphere of big religions of world. In particular it concerns diet provisions referring to food of the animal origin. Principles of the religion determine in this situation, what kind of food is allowed to the consumption. Is a question, whether it is possible to separate the religion from the vegetarianism? Religions differ from themselves. However they agree as for the need for the moral behaviour and ethic. A charity and sympathizing towards the poor one are core values. These values are valued highly by all religions of world. ItemEtyka zawodowa pracowników państwowych organów kontroli(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Łabieniec, PawełState audit institutions constitute a very important part of the contemporary model of state. Auditors (people employed by state audit institutions), being professionals, should fulfill many duties which are customarily assigned to them by the society. In their daily work auditors should observe statutes and codes of ethics. The ethics of auditors of the Supreme Audit Office (Najwyższa Izba Kontroli) is held in high regard among rules of conduct for auditors. It serves a model for ethics in other state audit institutions, such as the National Labour Inspectorate (Państwowa Inspekcja Pracy) or Regional Chambers of Audit (regionalne izby obrachunkowe). Ethics of auditors is a special kind of ethics expected from public administration employees. ItemU podstaw myśli etycznej Leszka Kołakowskiego(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Olczyk, AdamThe article discusses primary matters of Leszek Kołakowski’s ethical thought. For that purpose, the analysis focuses on the need to justify the content of natural law. Kołakowski maintains that the development of communication and growth of cities are foundations of the justification process. In line with this idea the intuition of evil (related with such terms like tabu, sacrum, profanum or sin) is the major determinant for the distinction between good and evil. Kołakowski’s theory also explores a connection between the experience of evil and human dignity. ItemEdukacja demokratyczna według Hannah Arendt(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Eliasz, KatarzynaAmong various modes of the vita activa considered by Hannah Arendt, the ability for action and particularly political action is the crucial one as it endows life with meaning and constitutes human freedom. The question I address in this essay is whether it is possible – according to Arendt – to create active citizenship by means of democratic education. In order to answer this question I consider three models of democratic education, two of which should be rejected if one agrees with Arendt’s assumptions. The third model, aimed at developing abilities to think critically, is the only one that can support those values, which are essential for a healthy democracy. ItemPubliczne finansowanie sztuki w kontekście zasady neutralności światopoglądowej państwa – podejście filozoficznoprawne(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Wojdala, MagdalenaThe aim of the article is to analyze the issue of public funding of art in the context of state’s neutrality principle. In the first part of the paper I present theoretical dimension of the problem of neutral and perfectionist justification for public authorities’ actions. The second part of the article comprises the outline and the critique of a few arguments which justify funding of art from public treasury. I concentrate particularly on Ronald Dworkin’s conception. In summary I present three possible model solutions of the problem of public funding of art. ItemDemokratyczny status sądowej kontroli konstytucyjności prawa(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Ciszewski, WojciechConstitutional review of legislation is the power to examine statutes for their conformity with the constitution. This competence is performed by the judiciary. The origins of this institution date back to XIX century and since that time constitutional review of legislation has became an important institution in most democratic states. In the paper, the author answers the most important charge raised against constitutional review – that it lacks democratic legitimacy. According to Jeremy Waldron, there is always a loss to democracy when a majoritian decision is overruled by a politically unaccountable court. As an answer to Waldron’s objection, the author introduces three arguments for the democratic status of constitutional review. These arguments point to three different sources of legitimacy for constitutional review: democratic will of the people, the principle of respect for the democratic reason, and substantial democratic values. Item(Nie)Koherencja sankcji penalnych. Prezentacja wyników badań empirycznych(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Janowski, MichałThe incoherence in judicial punishments, if it exists, may be considered as a form of injustice. The legal system in which the similarly situated cases are not treated similarly may be criticized especially from the point of view of the public understanding the justice idea. The conception of incommensurability of values has a substantial impact on the law application process. Because the judges typically assess cases in isolation, there is no common measure to evaluate the cases and the human way of thinking is category-bounded the judges are susceptible to producing incoherent patterns. However it is believed that if the risk of incoherence is brought to judicial attention, the judges might well be likely to do better, on this count, than non-lawyers (Cass Sunstein, Daniel Kahneman, David Schkade, Ilana Ritov 2001). The article presents an empirical analyses carried out on the judgements that were performed by the unselected group of judges in one of the district courts in Lodz. ItemTrzy tezy o sędziach społecznych i ich udziale w sprawowaniu wymiaru sprawiedliwości w Polsce(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Juchacz, Piotr W.In the article author states and justifies three theses on the lay judges and their participation in the exercise of justice in Poland. First thesis claims that the statement about the lack of integration in the community of lay judges in Poland is not true any longer and it is possible to observe the beginning of a process of its integration and cooperation connected with the recent establishment and activity of the Association National Council of Lay Judges. The second thesis states, that it is necessary to broaden the participation of citizens in the exercise of justice as a remedy for a low level of legitimacy and credibility of the judiciary. According to the third thesis Poland is presently in need of a widespread public debate concerning the reform of the institution of lay judges which should lead to a real fulfilment of the constitutional right of citizens to participate in the exercise of justice. ItemZnaczenie metafor pojęciowych na przykładzie prawa autorskiego(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Zalewska, MonikaThe problematic gap between legal and social norms exists in copyright law. The consequences of this gap are severe and include: not following copyright rules, and a big conflict between artists and recipients of a culture. In this context, copyright piracy is prevalent in Poland and legal tools aimed to protect interests of artists have failed. Copyright law might have been in sync with analogue era, but not to digital world. Identification of roots of the discrepancy between social expectations and legally binding rules might be the first step toward rectifying of situation. This article demonstrates the conceptual metaphors as a possible reason for malfunctioning the copyright law. Some metaphors treat intangible objects as tangible ones (intellectual or artistic work) and might pose difficulties mentioned above. Additionally, Larsson defined a group of metaphors in legal system. Bound with them are metaphors outside of law. For example, if law treats intellectual property as tangible property, than metaphors outside the copyright legal system, such as piracy apply. Polish copyright law in the context of Lakoff – Johnson theory of metaphors is a framework of the study. ItemCo zrobić z bestią? Metafora jako narzędzie kategoryzacji niektórych ludzi na przykładzie ustawy z dnia 22 listopada 2013 r. o postępowaniu wobec osób z zaburzeniami psychicznymi stwarzających zagrożenie życia, zdrowia lub wolności seksualnej innych osób(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Wojtczak, SylwiaThe paper is to show the consequences of using in public and legal discourse some expressions, which disseminate certain metaphors in the individual and collective cognition. The analysed example is the expression ‘the act about the beasts’ used widely in Poland towards an act of 22 of November 2013 about a procedure towards persons with psychic disorders resulting a risk for life, health and sexual freedom of other persons. Such an identification of the act has been a realization of the metaphor PERSON WITH PSYCHIC DISORDERS RESULTING A RISK FOR LIFE, HEALTH AND SEXUAL FREEDOM OF OTHER PERSONS IS A BEAST. This metaphor may be a psychological means to facilitate dehumanized perception of certain human beings. ItemSpołeczna rola prawników: odpowiedzialność, podmiotowość, zaufanie(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Kaczmarek, PrzemysławThis article attempts to answer the question why is it worth to exhibit the category of agency in the legal practice. Answering the question I started my discussion from the presentation ideas related to the issue of the social role of the lawyers. In the completion of this objective, I discussed three ideas: moral responsibility, trust and subjective agency. Putting forward the role of the lawyer, I paid attention to the relationship between the notion of trust in the lawyer’s role and moral responsibility. This relationship is based on an ethical link, which is founded on a kind of obligation. This idea can be demonstrated by looking into confidence in the lawyer’s role as a special form of obligation to consider individual, institutional and social arguments. In the presented approach the state of limbo between the individual dimension, which focuses on the relationship between a specific individual and their rights, and the public dimension, where attention is paid to institutional and social arguments, is a characteristic feature of the professional role of a lawyer. The shaping of a professional role in a subjective and structural authorship is based on the idea of a two-way movement. It consists in highlighting the institutional structure with simultaneous reinforcement of the role of the subject who acts within it. ItemDialektyka solidarności a państwo prawa(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Kaleta, Krzysztof J.The article concerns the significance of the idea of solidarity for the rule of law within contemporary constitutional democracies. The author presents, with reference to P. Ricouer’s philosophy, the dialectical nature of solidarity which mediatises ideals of love and justice. He also presents the solidarity’s place within liberal and republican political thought. The author points the limitations imposed on the idea of solidarity by the model of liberal constitutionalism. At the same time he emphasises that legal recognition related to liberal culture of human rights gains its social complement in the idea of solidarity. He argues that the idea of solidarity might determine the concept of legitimization of power in its modern formula. The idea of solidarity and the concept of rule of law both realise – in different ways and on different levels – the common values oriented towards elimination of arbitrariness of power and ensuring conditions for cooperation between members of political community. The constitutional justice may perform a leading role in fulfilment the idea of solidarity as it watches over distribution of political power and secures processes of free communication within political community. ItemO egalitaryzmie ekonomicznym(Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Wydział Nauk Społecznych, Instytut Filozofii UAM, 2016) Załuski, WojciechEconomic egalitarianism, i.e., the view according to which equality of resources is a social value, has two different forms: the intrinsic and the instrumental. According to the former economic equality is a value in itself (i.e., an ‘intrinsic’ value), whereas according to the latter it is an ‘instrumental’ value, i.e., it is a value in so far as it contributes to the realization of some other values (which, as opposed to equality, are intrinsic), such as, e.g. the alleviation of suffering, higher quality of life, political freedom, or fraternity. Intrinsic egalitarianism is a controversial view, as it is susceptible to the famous ‘levelling down’ objection (formulated by Derek Parfit). We formulate in the paper two main arguments for the view that instrumental egalitarianism is not plausible as well. The first argument says that it is difficult to demonstrate that social and health problems conceived by the adherents of instrumental economic egalitarianism (such as, e.g., Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett) as the effects of inequalities of resources are really caused by these inequalities; we argue that it is more plausible, at least with regard to some of these effects, to maintain that their cause is poverty (and thereby the low absolute, rather than relative, level of income). According to the second argument, even if the adherents of instrumental economic egalitarianism are right in claiming that there exists a causal link between economic inequalities and social and health problems, it would not be sufficient to morally justify their egalitarian view, since the link is to a large extent based upon morally dubious psychological mechanisms, such as envy or the proclivity to overestimate the importance of material resources. Finally, we argue that the view which best harmonizes with the above critique of egalitarianism is the ‘doctrine of sufficiency’ proposed by Harry Frankfurt, which implies that what is important is not equality of resources but that all persons have enough of them.