ItemPetit plaidoyer pour l’autonomisation au niveau supérieur en français langue étrangère(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Wilczyńska, WeronikaThis contribution starts with arguing, at both theoretical and practical levels, for autonomization in the advanced teaching/learning of French, showing that approach as highly recommendable in the presentday situation in Poland, especially in the university setting. The second part of the article gives evidence of it, referring to a research project conducted recently in this precise context, in which autonomization appeared as very useful also in teacher training. ItemComment traduire le comique verbal(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Walkiewicz, BarbaraIn this article the author presents a selection of results of studies of verbal comicality in Rabelaise and as it is translated by T. Boy-Żeleński. The results were obtained through the use of the method of comparison of laughter-creating mechanisms of comic sequences in LD and LA, based on the theory of connotations as developed by C. Kerbrat-Orecchioni. ItemThéorie des modèles de textes appliquée à la traductologie(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Tomaszkiewicz, TeresaThe article describes the connection between the science of translation and contrastive textology. The foucs is on the texts of a strictly determined fixed structure, such as: instructions of use, bank or medical leaflets, recipes, job advertisements, legislative texts (a company establishment agreement, a leasing agreement, etc.), which translators may be exposed to in their professional careers. The article tries to outline these texts’ models, which tend to function parallelly in different societies as a basis for their correct translation. ItemLes aspects de la traduction qui sous-tendent l’aacquisition de la compétence de communication chei les apprenants du français langue étrangère(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Szeflińska, MagdalenaThe article discusses the role of translation in communicative teaching methods. Expunged from language teaching, translation is now coming back thanks to the introduction of communicative teaching methods. Teachers, however, are not prepared for this and the real questions still have to be asked: “Why translate in class?” The various translation exercises increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning and students’ motivation. La ItemLes études contrastives et confrontatives: domaine français-polonais(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Stefański, WitoldIn this article problems of contrastive and confrontative studies in reference to Polish and French is discussed. The author also deals with the relationship of these studies with typological linguistics. The discussion is based on analyses of oppositions which make it possible to classify languages into analytical and synthetic ones. ItemConsideratii genetice despre categoria prepositiei în limbile romanice, cu referire mai detaliata la limba romanâ(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Rusiewicz-Woźny, KrystynaThere is a strong connection between the occurrence of prepositions and the reduction of the number of cases. Prepositions and casual flexions have a common objective to assure the placement of a noun in a text conform to syntactic rules. The formation of prepositions can be perceived as a replacement of internal morphology with external morphology. ItemEl adjetivo calificativo Español y su posición dentro del sintagma nominal(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Pawlik, JanuszWith this little paper we intend to draw the attention of Polish speakers of Spanish to the problem of word order of qualifying adjectives in a noun phrase. In our opinion, this grammatical issue should be tackled successfully only by carrying out an in-depth semantic study of the contents of these noun determiners. For this purpose we are putting forward a general semantic classification of this category of words demonstrating that the meaning of a given item is closely connected with its syntactic position. ItemL’image du locuteur crédible dans le discours d ’opinion(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Pachocińska, ElżbietaThe trutstworthy speaker (interlocutor) presents his reasoning as based on logical deduction, although it is structured by much more complicated relations.This is because of the goal posed before the discourse in which an opinion is expressed. He tries to influence a recipient and to make him adopt a new point of view which is not based merely on logical values. To achieve this goal the speaker (interlocutor) uses argumentative structures which use procedures of natural reasoning. ItemLes idiotismes dans la grammaire générative(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Nkollo, MikołajThe paper deals with the main inadequacies o f the generative approach to the analysis o f idioms. The apparatus implemented by Chomsky (deep structures, selectional restrictions and kernel sentences) is unable to forsee and explain the irregularities concerning these expressions. The idioms are divided into sub-groups in order to show that their various kinds are to be described in different ways. Some suggestions on how to deal adequately with them are brought about. Although several problems (inflectional morphology, inability to undergo certain transformations) remain unresolved, the proposed improvements afford assimilation o f idioms within the lexicon. ItemLes origines rhétoriques de la théorie des textes argumentatifs(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Lipińska, MagdalenaThe present paper has been written for students whose intention is to leam the basic skills of composing argumentative texts such as essays, B.A. papers and M.A. theses. As it is widely known, the structure of all persuasive forms of writing adheres to specific norms and rules, which were clearly prescribed back in antiquity and which are mostly followed in contemporary textbooks on argumentative texts. In my paper, the current French theory of the latter has been explained through description of its classical roots. The analysis focuses in particular on the stages of argumentative composition, its inherent components and the typology of argumentative texts proposed by ancient Greeks and Romans. ItemStructures hiérarchiques en terminologie - l 'hyperonymie(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Kacprzak, AlicjaAlong with antonymy and synonymy, hyperonymy is one o f the basic semantic relations in lexis. In specialistic terminologies the status of hyperonymy seems to be exceptional since this type o f vocabulary reflects the hierarchic character so typical for many fields o f science. This article presents the phenomenon o f hyperonymy in the language o f medicine in which it does not only perform the task o f ordering terminology, but is also an important factor which is a condition o f creation o f new terms. ItemSull'uso delle pro-forme nelle riprese coreferenziali del testo(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Gałkowski, ArturThe article takes up some aspects of the use of pronouns as referential pro-forms in the process of text substitution. - The main emphasis is placed on the distinction between anaphoric and cataphoric pronominalization and on their meaning in coreferential chains. The author states that pronominalization does not occur in all cricumstances but in some cases repetition, as a special kind of the pro-form, is used. The conclusion points out that pro-forms can be employed as long as they do not interfere with the continuity of topic and the cohesion of text. ItemAspectos lingüísticos y culturales del español en la enseñanza de esta lengua a extranjeros(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Carrera de la Red, Fátima; Sáinz García, AvelinaThis article deals with the problem of teaching of Spanish language teachers and of some aspects o f the methodology o f teaching Spanish to foreigners. It contains results of experiments conducted by philology students at the Cantabria University in Santander (Spain) within the course of unconventional classes Teaching Spanish as a foreign language. ItemLes critères de classement des catégories grammaticales - une perspective diachronique(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Bulikowski, BrunonThis paper deals with different ways of classifying grammatical categories, from the antiquity to the present. The author refers to the works of Aristotle as well as to ideas of American and European structural grammarians. A large part of this article is devoted to an explication of the medieval Modistes theory of speculative grammar. This paper is also concerned with the opposition between grammatical and logical criteria. ItemComment le roman peut-il étre «wagnérien»? Le cas d'Élémir Bourges(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Malinowski, Mateusz WiesławThe centre of attention of the paper is the connections between the novel Le Crépuscule des dieux (1884) by Bourges and Wagnerian cycle of the Ring: their presence is traced in the subject matter of the work, at the level of character construction and composition. The opinion of the author is that Bourges is the most complete example, illustrating the influence of Wagnerian esthetics in the field of French novel. ItemLe fantastique clinique dans les récits de l’étrangeté psychique de Guy de Maupassant(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Gadomska, KatarzynaThe present work is a study of the clinic fantastic literature in the short stories by one of the most famous 19th century authors Guy de Maupassant. In 19th century the tendency to reject the traditional fantastic literature consisting in unexpected and sudden interference of the supernatural powers into the real world. ItemLa vision tragique du monde de Roger Martin du Gard présentée dans ses romans(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2001) Filipowska, IrenaThe tragic vision of the world, in the opinion of RMG consisted in ascertaining that, in the universe, neither God nor any metaphysical conception took any place. In this understanding the world is absurd and the presence of man in this world is pointless as well. A human being thrown on his/her own resources, surrounded by enemy forces - the biological fatality, that is to say diseases, old age and death, and the historical fatality in the form of wars weigh on, is always abandoned.