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- ItemKontynuacja czy przełom? Obraz PRL i geneza transformacji systemowej w prasie białostockiej lat 1989–1991(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM w Poznaniu, 2011) Małyszko, PiotrThe political transformation that commenced in 1989 resulted in changes in the political and economic systems of Poland. The Polish People’s Republic (PRL) ceased to exist and the Third Republic was born. While this is quite obvious from the perspective of year 2011, the content of the articles published in Białystok dailies from 1989 through 1991 shows that it was not so apparent then that the year 1989 was a break-through. The assessment of the PRL was crucial for the process of attitude changes both in society and journalists. In 1989, Białystok dailies presented a positive account of this period, while in 1991 their assessment was more complex. No one would defend the communist system as a whole any more; some painted it in dark colors, while others counterpointed its merits and weaknesses in an attempt at a balanced assessment. The main bone of contention was the political system of the PRL, the most important events of the 1980s, the great national movement that developed as ‘Solidarity’, martial law and the economic crisis. The author is interested in the Białystok dailies’ attitude to these issues.
- ItemPozycja i znaczenie partii wywodzących się z systemu niedemokratycznego na scenie partyjnej w Polsce, Czechach, Słowacji i na Węgrzech po 1989 r.(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM w Poznaniu, 2011) Patkowski, KrzysztofPolitical parties rooted in a non-democratic system have become a significant element of party systems in Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary, where they have taken an active part in the transformation process. The paper assesses the significance of these types of groupings for the construction of a new democratic system by means of a comparison of four members of the Vysehrad Group. The ideological profiles of these parties and their position in the party arena are defined. Finally, an attempt is made to answer the question of how these groupings have adapted to the new democratic system, why some of them continue to play a crucial role in politics even today, while others are found somewhere on the outskirts of political life. The author’s interests focus on the successors of those groupings that held full power before 1989: the Democratic Left Alliance in Poland, the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia in the Czech Republic, the Party of the Democratic Left in Slovakia, and the Hungarian Socialist Party. The example of the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia is of particular interest here as this is the only party that has not fundamentally changed its ideological profile and continues in isolation from other Czech groupings. At the same time, for twenty years, this same party has come third in the national elections, and even second in the European elections.
- ItemСМИ Казахстана в условиях глобализации(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM w Poznaniu, 2011) Donaj, Łukasz; Żumanowicz Nurbekov, SakenThe authors present a brief history of independent Kazakhstan and the development of the means of mass information there. At the beginning of December 2010, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe summit took place in Astana. Kazakhstan had chaired the OSCE for a year, enjoying an opportunity to present itself as an ambitious and active player on the international arena. Despite the lack of measurable results, both the Astana summit and the chairing of the organization, which required considerable organizational efforts, turned out to be a test which the entire state apparatus successfully passed and a significant stimulus for its development. That Kazakhstan has been successful also with respect to the development of the media, at least as far as possible, can be proven by the organization of the 9th Media Forum in April 2010, which attracted approximately 450 representatives from around the globe. The Kazakh government pays particular attention to the development of the information infrastructure, which provides a guarantee that the country will participate in the global information space as a full member.
- ItemEwolucja greckich środków społecznego przekazu, z uwzględnieniem komunikatu reklamowego(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM w Poznaniu, 2011) Grochowski, RobertIn terms of the means of social communication, Greece is a unique country. Its media system has been significantly influenced by the culture and history of political and social relations. Radio and press emerged at a time of warfare and the struggle for independence, whereas television began and developed in the period of political conflict in the 20th century, which is still evident in Greek public television. Regulations concern-ing the media are not fully observed there. This also refers to the advertising messages broadcast mainly by private television channels. The EU legislation Greece adopted is not fully obeyed by the media, or the advertising industry either. The paper outlines the history and importance of the Greek mass media, the advertising policy of some televi-sion stations and also refers to large format advertising. It should be pointed out that the facts and conclusions presented by the author with reference to advertising messages and television come from the research he conducted in Greece from 2008 through 2010.
- ItemPodmiotowość prawnomiędzynarodowa Wspólnot Europejskich oraz Unii Europejskiej(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM w Poznaniu, 2011) Rewizorski, MarekOne of the main issues in the debate on the Treaty of Lisbon was to determine the legal international status of the European Union. The doctrine of international public law and European law stipulates personality as the ability to acquire rights and enter into international commitments. Before the Treaty of Lisbon came into force a highly animated and varied discussion continued on this issue. Among other things, it concerned the issues of whether international organizations are the subjects of interna-tional law, the nature of their subjectivity (primary or secondary), the relationship between the Community’s founding treaties, and, finally, whether European law constitutes an autonomous legal system. The most serious controversies, however, were raised by the legal international qualification of the European Union. In the opinion of a portion of representatives of European law, the EU was considered to be an international organization although it did not have legal personality, in contrast to the European Community. Therefore, it was usually defined as a specific structure in statu nascendi. This dispute was ultimately concluded by the Lisbon Treaty which replaced the three-pillar legal structure with a uniform international organization, and the European Community ceased to function. Yet the new legal system retained the European Atomic Energy Community, which seems an inconsistent and flawed decision, albeit a politically justified solution.