Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny, 1992, nr 2


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Now showing 1 - 14 of 14
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    Spis treści RPEiS 54(2), 1992
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992)
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    Region - regionalizacja - regionalizm
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Chojnicki, Zbyszko; Czyż, Teresa
    In the article an attempt is made to systematise the various understandings of a region, regionalisation and regionalism in geography, and to show how these concepts can be useful in the solution of contemporary research problems. This systématisation rests on the distinction between three categories of regions: (1) a region as a tool of research, (2) a region as a concrete object, and 3) a region as a tool for action. This categorisation provides a basis for t h e characterisation of the concepts of a region. A region as a tool of research, or spatial analysis, rests on the notion of the homogeneit of an area. This understanding can be found m the conception of a uniform region and the conception of a nodal region. The notion of a region as a concrete object can be found in a structural-systems approach. A region as a territorial system is identified by the following elements. 1) the nodal structure of the settlement system, 2) a high level of social, economic and cultural integration, 3) a higli level of self-organisation, and 4; the nature of the closure and boundaries. A region as a tool for action is an area of a unit of t he State's territorial organisation. Hence it is called a region of territorial organisation. There are two krids of such regions: administrative (of the central and local governments) and special. The three basic concepts of a region are the starting-point for distinguishing: 1) analyticalcognitive régionalisation, 2) structural régionalisation, and 3) practical régionalisation. The anaytical kind of régionalisation is understood as a form of spatial classification of prime importance in the preparation of an algorithm of régionalisation based on taxonomic methods. Régionalisation associated with the structural-systems understanding of a region seeks to distinguish it in the complex socio-economic reality. The delimitation of regions - territorial systems consists in 1) deerrnining the hierarchical system of links, and 2) testing its degree of closure. Practical regionaliation, which aims at establishing or testing territorial divisions for practical activity, must satisfy two groups of conditions. Internal ones refer to the relation between a territorial division and the existing regional structure. External ones refer mainly to the equality of "unit size" and the economic potentials of these units. Regionalism is taken to mean a set of various properties which are typical of a community of people and which occur in an area and define its separate character. In this sense the concept defines the uniqueness of a region. The concept of regionalism refers both to the state of social consciousness dominant in the regional community and its opinion-creating circles, and to the economic, cultural and practical activity of this community. Regionalistic movements and tendencies are a response to excessive centralism and cultural and economic uniformity on the one hand, and on the other they are a product of cultural, ethnic and national differences reinforced by differences in the economic and civilisation levels and opportunities for economic development
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    Nowy paradygmat rozwoju regionalnego
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Gruchman, Bohdan
    Anew paradigm of regional development is emerging in West-European countries. It is based on local innovative networks. Key conditions for the establishment of such networks are: the existenee of numerous small-scale enterprises which operate in cooperation organized horizontally and an integrated local labour market, which generates a social learning process and lasting incentives to innovate. The Polish economy is currently in a transformation process from a centralized command system to a market economy similar to that existing in Western mdustnalized countries. In the course of this transformation numerous new small and middle-size enterprises are being established. This process is differentiated regionally; in some regions it is already far advanced. More difficult is the establishment of balanced local labour markets Unemployment runs high in many areas. High inflation, structural recession and many uncertainties are barriers to development of a local learning process and of an incentive mechanism foi innovations. Yet, in some Polish regions efforts are being made to establish an organizational infrastructure which could i. p in establishing viable local innovative networks.
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    Refleksje na temat układu przestrzennego administracji publicznej i jego konsekwencji w zakresie administrowania
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Rabska, Teresa
    The science of administrative law has not yet elaborated the concept of region or regionalization. From the perspective of t h a t science, the problem is reduced to t h e territorial division of t h e state, which division determines the spatial range of activities of public administration, governmental as well as local. On the other hand, creating a territorial network, subordinated to the needs of administration and being of formal character, is always a form of interference in a given environment. Such an action brings about further effects, both legal and factual. In consequence, it may either create better conditions for development, or destroy the existing structures. The changes in the administrative structure of t h e state have been implemented only at the oasic level, i.e., at the level of a commune. However, the introduction of local government has not changed the existing structures. Presently, changes should be introduced at the level of governmental administration. The starting point for such changes should be the determination of a new character and a new division of tasks.
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    Region i badania regionalne w perspektywie socjologii
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Kwilecki, Andrzej
    The author points to the diversity of conceptions of distinguishing regions along various criteria: geographical, economic, ethnographic, administrative, self-governmental and sociological. All those conceptions are based on distinguishing local and cultural communities, in various ways arranged into larger regional groups. It is connected with distinguishing the "homeland" ("Heimat") along the "ideological motherland" and with the development of regional research on culture of particular regions. Regional research are subject to deep transformations as to their character and functions in connection with an increased social mobility, and, in effect, in connection with the blurring of distinct features of traditional, historical and ethnographic regions. Regional research is of particular importance in view of t he present works on new administrative division of t h e state, in correspondance with the changed social structures.
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    Nowa organizacja Kościoła Rzymskokatolickiego w Polsce 1992 roku
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Walachowicz, Tadeusz
    The article discusses new principles of territorial division of the Roman-Catholic Church in Poland, introduced by the edict of 25 March 1992 issued by the Pope John Paul II. The article considers a historic background of the previous division and new principles of organization in the light of the recommendations of the II Vatican Council.
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    Sterowanie rozwojem gospodarczym regionu
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Trojanek, Maria
    The article presents the problems connected with the shaping of the development of a region in new socio-economic and political conditions. The author points to the circumstances in which regional authorities may construct the program of such development, and presents the instruments to be used for ensuring a harmonious development of a given region. Besides, the author presents some methodological conceptions to be utilized in the process of coordinating developmental aims of entities cariying out the economic activity in a given region.
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    Transformacja systemowa gospodarki a polityka regionalna
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Opałło, Mirosława
    This paper presents two particular problems of regional policy, of great significance in a present-day situation in Poland, namely: 1) the processes of economic system in macroregional distribution, and 2) spatial aspects of the restructurization of industry. As to the first issue, special attention was paid to ownership transformations and the establishment of new economic entities, including joint venture companies. The analysis carried out in the article indicates, that ownership transformations of Polish economy are responsible for the growth of inter-regional differences. In those transformations preference is granted to well-developed regions, while weaker areas are being omitted. The second issue is illustrated by the sales structure and the employment measure in industry per 1000 persons. Both figures show unequal territorial distribution. The above analysis, referring to the years 1989 - 1991, shows that new regional policy is necessary. Areas and centres that require diversified adaptive activities should be distinguished, with optimum exploitation of self-regulatory potential of local communities.
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    Determinanty rozwoju gospodarczego gmin w Poznańskiem
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Bak, Urszula
    The author distinguished three major factors responsible for civilizational transformations in the communes of Poznań Province: the level of actual living conditions, the degree of productive activity of households, and the level of technical equipment of households. The analysis has led the author to the following generalizations: (1) civilizational transformations were the least intensive in the agricultural regions; (2) the highest level of civilizational transformations was found in communes located near Poznań and in t h e communes which previously housed local administration °f medium level (abolished in 1975); and (3) the level of technical equipment of households in the Poznań Province was usually higher t h an the level to which the productive activity in agriculture would indicate.
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    Cykliczność zmian struktury nakładów inwestycyjnych w makroregionie środkowo-zachodnim
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Małuszyńska, Ewa
    Regional cycles are a relatively r a r e topic in t h e literature on spatial problems. The observation of changes occurring at a regional level have led the author to the supposition that regional development may be characterized by a cyclical variability. The outcome of research presented in the article confirmed in principle the hypotheses formulated by the author.
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    Postawy wobec prywatyzacji i ich społeczno-psy ekologiczne uwarunkowania
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Balawajder, Krystyna; Popiołek, Katarzyna
    The authors discuss the issues of social reception of privatization processes. They start with the presentation of socio-psychological conditioning of attitudes towards privatization, then they analyze the respondents' knowledge of privatization mechanisms and aims, and finally they present empirical findings on evaluations, hopes and worries connected with privatization. They conclude stating that for the success of ownership transformations it is necessaiy to take steps of social character; in particular, it is necessaiy to provide adequate information, prepare the ground for social change and strive to gain people's support for ownership transformations.
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    Czy zalegalizować narkotyki (wokół debaty amerykańskiej)
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Krajewski, Krzysztof
    The drugs legalization debate originated in the USA during the last decade, as current policies based on prohibition and broad criminalization became the target of increasing criticism, because of their ineffectiveness and many negative side effects. There is no doubt that proponents of such a move have many very strong and convincing arguments to support their position. But it is eually true that opponents are able to rise some very well grounded objections. The main Problem is, that both sides are unable to prove beyond any doubt their version of the consequences of abandoning prohibition, first of all with respect to eventual increases in the consumption of drugs. Because of this it seems that total legalization of all drugs may be currently too risky a step, Instead, an approach more permissive than current one should be recommended, first of all to avoid negative side effects of the strict prohibition so well described during the discussed here debate. This approach shall include experiments with step by step legalization of some drugs, first ofall soft ones. Also making possible legal access to drugs for the persons already addicted may be a wise step. Such approach was adopted vûth sucess by some European countries and should constitute the cornerstone of the drugs policies in Poland as well.
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    Przegląd piśmiennictwa RPEiS 54(2), 1992
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992)
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    Sprawozdania i informacje RPEiS 54(2), 1992
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992)
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego