Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny, 1992, nr 2


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    Spis treści RPEiS 54(2), 1992
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992)
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    Region - regionalizacja - regionalizm
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Chojnicki, Zbyszko; Czyż, Teresa
    In the article an attempt is made to systematise the various understandings of a region, regionalisation and regionalism in geography, and to show how these concepts can be useful in the solution of contemporary research problems. This systématisation rests on the distinction between three categories of regions: (1) a region as a tool of research, (2) a region as a concrete object, and 3) a region as a tool for action. This categorisation provides a basis for t h e characterisation of the concepts of a region. A region as a tool of research, or spatial analysis, rests on the notion of the homogeneit of an area. This understanding can be found m the conception of a uniform region and the conception of a nodal region. The notion of a region as a concrete object can be found in a structural-systems approach. A region as a territorial system is identified by the following elements. 1) the nodal structure of the settlement system, 2) a high level of social, economic and cultural integration, 3) a higli level of self-organisation, and 4; the nature of the closure and boundaries. A region as a tool for action is an area of a unit of t he State's territorial organisation. Hence it is called a region of territorial organisation. There are two krids of such regions: administrative (of the central and local governments) and special. The three basic concepts of a region are the starting-point for distinguishing: 1) analyticalcognitive régionalisation, 2) structural régionalisation, and 3) practical régionalisation. The anaytical kind of régionalisation is understood as a form of spatial classification of prime importance in the preparation of an algorithm of régionalisation based on taxonomic methods. Régionalisation associated with the structural-systems understanding of a region seeks to distinguish it in the complex socio-economic reality. The delimitation of regions - territorial systems consists in 1) deerrnining the hierarchical system of links, and 2) testing its degree of closure. Practical regionaliation, which aims at establishing or testing territorial divisions for practical activity, must satisfy two groups of conditions. Internal ones refer to the relation between a territorial division and the existing regional structure. External ones refer mainly to the equality of "unit size" and the economic potentials of these units. Regionalism is taken to mean a set of various properties which are typical of a community of people and which occur in an area and define its separate character. In this sense the concept defines the uniqueness of a region. The concept of regionalism refers both to the state of social consciousness dominant in the regional community and its opinion-creating circles, and to the economic, cultural and practical activity of this community. Regionalistic movements and tendencies are a response to excessive centralism and cultural and economic uniformity on the one hand, and on the other they are a product of cultural, ethnic and national differences reinforced by differences in the economic and civilisation levels and opportunities for economic development
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    Nowy paradygmat rozwoju regionalnego
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Gruchman, Bohdan
    Anew paradigm of regional development is emerging in West-European countries. It is based on local innovative networks. Key conditions for the establishment of such networks are: the existenee of numerous small-scale enterprises which operate in cooperation organized horizontally and an integrated local labour market, which generates a social learning process and lasting incentives to innovate. The Polish economy is currently in a transformation process from a centralized command system to a market economy similar to that existing in Western mdustnalized countries. In the course of this transformation numerous new small and middle-size enterprises are being established. This process is differentiated regionally; in some regions it is already far advanced. More difficult is the establishment of balanced local labour markets Unemployment runs high in many areas. High inflation, structural recession and many uncertainties are barriers to development of a local learning process and of an incentive mechanism foi innovations. Yet, in some Polish regions efforts are being made to establish an organizational infrastructure which could i. p in establishing viable local innovative networks.
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    Refleksje na temat układu przestrzennego administracji publicznej i jego konsekwencji w zakresie administrowania
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Rabska, Teresa
    The science of administrative law has not yet elaborated the concept of region or regionalization. From the perspective of t h a t science, the problem is reduced to t h e territorial division of t h e state, which division determines the spatial range of activities of public administration, governmental as well as local. On the other hand, creating a territorial network, subordinated to the needs of administration and being of formal character, is always a form of interference in a given environment. Such an action brings about further effects, both legal and factual. In consequence, it may either create better conditions for development, or destroy the existing structures. The changes in the administrative structure of t h e state have been implemented only at the oasic level, i.e., at the level of a commune. However, the introduction of local government has not changed the existing structures. Presently, changes should be introduced at the level of governmental administration. The starting point for such changes should be the determination of a new character and a new division of tasks.
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    Region i badania regionalne w perspektywie socjologii
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1992) Kwilecki, Andrzej
    The author points to the diversity of conceptions of distinguishing regions along various criteria: geographical, economic, ethnographic, administrative, self-governmental and sociological. All those conceptions are based on distinguishing local and cultural communities, in various ways arranged into larger regional groups. It is connected with distinguishing the "homeland" ("Heimat") along the "ideological motherland" and with the development of regional research on culture of particular regions. Regional research are subject to deep transformations as to their character and functions in connection with an increased social mobility, and, in effect, in connection with the blurring of distinct features of traditional, historical and ethnographic regions. Regional research is of particular importance in view of t he present works on new administrative division of t h e state, in correspondance with the changed social structures.