ItemRozwój public relations w krajach Wspólnoty Niepodległych Państw(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Żetpisbaj, BekbołatułyThe paper outlines the emergence, development and the current status of the public relations sector in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) using the example of its evolution in three member states of the CIS: Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. It discusses the specificity of the PR market that emerged after the collapse of the USSR in the three former republics that are most significant for this sector. The process of establishment of the first PR agencies, both domestic and the branches of the largest foreign agencies, is described. The paper discusses the problems the PR market faced and continues to struggle with in these three states. Additionally, the development of education in this field is presented, as well as the numerous obstacles that hinder this process in these countries. ItemKonflikt polityczny z perspektywy teorii zachowania zasobów(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Kuświk, JustynaThis paper analyzes the phenomenon of political conflict from the point of view of Stevan. E. Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources theory. The first part is devoted to considerations on the principal sources of political conflict and the general pattern of its course in view of selected theories from political science and psychology. It presents the mechanisms of both cognitive and emotional functioning of individuals and groups in a conflict situation. The second part reviews the basic assumptions of the Conservation of Resources theory. This encompasses considerations on the resources that are politically significant, their definitions, and conclusions on the management of political resources. First and foremost, the analysis concerns the functions of conflict which may constitute a source of both an increase in, and loss of resources; additionally, conflict as such can also be perceived and treated as a kind of resource. The paper presents examples of political events in the 19 th and 20 th centuries. ItemTabloidyzacja a konwergencja mediów – obraz wzajemnych zależności w polskim dyskursie publicznym. Analiza przypadku Tomasza Lisa(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Całek, AgnieszkaThe paper is composed of two parts. The first, theoretical part outlines the definitions of convergence and tabloidization. Then, four hypotheses are proposed and developed concerning the mutual relations of these two phenomena. The second part of the paper is devoted to a case analysis of the activity of Tomasz Lis, carried out on the grounds of these four hypotheses. The case study describes how the journalist is affected by tabloidization, while simultaneously using it in his work. The analysis is concluded with the considerations on the activity of Tomasz Lis in the context of media convergence. The paper ends with conclusions on the potential of developing further research in the field of the mutual relations of the phenomena discussed. ItemIdealny model dziennikarstwa w zderzeniu z rzeczywistością(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Wąsicka, MariaCan one talk about an ideal model of journalism? What is meant by this term? Is journalism only a profession, or can it be a mission? These are the questions that immediately come to mind when talking about the attitudes of contemporary journalists. Who decides to do the job and for what reasons? What abilities should journalists have? Is a journalist whose popularity is growing still a journalist or does he become a celebrity? The purpose of this article is to provide answers to these questions, as well as to collect and present the characteristics that are uniquely associated with the ideal model of a journalist, and to confront them with specific, selected examples of the behavior of Polish journalists, which demonstrate that all these suggestions may be practical, but may also be only ideals divorced from reality. ItemEUWT nowa możliwość dla współdziałania na pograniczu polsko-niemieckim(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Pyrgiel, JoannaThe author describes how European Groupings of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) operate, being a relatively new Community instrument, providing for the establishment of cooperation groups in the Community area for the purpose of facilitating and promoting territorial cooperation in order to foster economic and social cohesion. The operation of this mechanism is presented as an opportunity to develop Polish-German cooperation. In the author’s opinion, the activity of regional and local institutions located in the Polish-German borderland as concerns the issue of EGCT is rather modest, but the instrument itself is known to them, especially in the places where transborder cooperation is an element of joint activity. According to the author, the significance of EGTC as a tool is going to increase in the next support period 2014–2020 since there is a distinct European trend to take a regional attitude toward the development and implementation of EU projects. ItemMarginalizacja ugrupowań ekologicznych na scenach politycznych państw Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej w okresie transformacji ustrojowej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Łukaszewski, MarcinIn the period 2008–2011, twelve parliamentary elections were held in eight Central and East European states. Their results demonstrated the decreasing importance of green parties on the political stage in this part of Europe. The author of this paper tries to translate the concept developed by Allan Sikk and Rune Holmgaard Andersen, concerning the evolution of Estonian green parties, to party systems in CEE states. The paper also discusses the evolution of the status of green parties and their probable placement in party systems following the nearest parliamentary elections. ItemDziałania organów bezpieczeństwa i porządku publicznego jako formy prewencyjnego ingerowania w wolność wypowiedzi(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Taczkowska-Olszewska, JoannaThe paper demonstrates (by means of description and analysis) that the follow- ing activities of the law enforcement organs exemplify the limitation of the freedom of speech: (1) removal of the tent of the Solidarni 2010 movement from Krakowskie Przedmieœcie in Warsaw; (2) the erection of safety barriers in front of a group of people praying before a cross standing in front of the Chancellery of the President of Poland; (3) the Internal Security Agency entering the apartment of a student who de- signed the Antykomor.pl website, publishing negative opinions about the way the in- cumbent Polish President is exercising his office; (4) the removal by the Speaker of the Senate of part of an exhibition about the Smoleñsk catastrophe presented in the Parliament building; (5) arresting two young men and taking them to the police sta- tion to be questioned for holding a banner reading “It’s time for Antykomor. Freedom of speech is unhealthy;” (6) imposing fines of PLN 500.00 (roughly equivalent to EUR 125) on football fans demonstrating in front of the Chancellery of the Prime Minister with a banner reading “Donald, you moron, football fans will topple your government;” (7) checking the IDs of people laying flowers in Krakowskie Przedmieœcie to commemorate the anniversary of the Smoleñsk catastrophe; and (8) the Municipal Guard blocking the way, in order to prevent members of the Polish parliament from attending a celebration commemorating the Smoleñsk catastrophe. ItemIdeology as a factor influencing the journalistic message. An analysis based on material from The Times, The Sun and Pravda(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Bagińska, MartaThis paper analyzes the influence of ideology on the journalistic message on the basis of materials published about Alexander Litvinenko by The Times , The Sun and Pravda . The paper applies the concept presented by Teun A. van Dijk, who identifies the following aspects of message structure: lexical elements, implications, presuppositions, descriptions, cohesion, semantic events, semantic and external structures. The analysis involves the examples taken from the articles about the Litvinenko issue to show how ideologies and opinions can be present in the content of journalistic accounts. ItemŹródła poparcia wyborczego lokalnych liderów w samorządowych kampaniach wyborczych (na przykładzie kampanii wyborczych prezydentów miast na prawach powiatu w 2010 roku)(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Piechota, GrażynaThe paper attempts to order and indicate the most important sources of systemic and non-systemic support allowing local leaders to win elections and thereby gain- ing or maintaining power. The study is concentrated solely on the examination of the sources of support for political leaders in cities with district rights in the 2010 elec- tion campaign. The study was financed by a grant from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education obtained for statutory research at the Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University in 2012. The paper also makes use of a portion of studies carried out and published earlier on the topic of the processes of political communication of local leaders in the social media (Facebook and political blogs) and on various Internet websites. The paper presents a full account of the results of these studies in the context of political communication in the election process. ItemOchrona zdrowia jako element polityki publicznej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Barańska, MarzenaPublic health is strictly related to health policy, since political decisions determine the selection of priorities and the distribution of assets. Health, perceived in this way, is protected by global activities, and not only by a given country or region. Health is a significant element among the tasks handled by public authorities. A con- sequence of these activities is ensuring medical care by means of developing the right apparatus and mechanisms of solutions allowing for common access to treat- ments offered. ItemMagdalena Gąsior-Marek kontra Joanna Mucha. Lubelskie dzienniki wobec konfliktu kandydatek do Sejmu w 2011 roku(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Łukasik-Turecka, AgnieszkaThe paper discusses the response of the media in the city of Lublin to a conflict of two candidates of the Platforma Obywatelska (Civic Platform) political party to the Polish parliament (Sejm): Magdalena G¹sior-Marek and Joanna Mucha. To a large extent, this conflict defined the 2011 election campaign in Lublin. The media, mainly local and regional printed press, followed the dispute between the two deputies-candidates. Both ladies, deputies in the sixth term of the parliament at the time, and in the seventh term at present, were well-known in the Lubelskie region but later came to be nationally known under peculiar circumstances. Magdalena Gąsior-Marek gained reputation when she gave flowers to Minister Cezary Grabarczyk after the opposition failed to depose him, while Joanna Mucha stirred controversy with her interview in a party magazine POgłos , where she addressed the issue of applying certain medical procedures to the elderly. The conflict of the two candidates concentrated around the Civic Platform electoral list in the Lubelskie region and the places assigned to both ladies on this list with G¹sior-Marek coming first and Mucha – second. The paper attempts to answer a question of to what extent the involvement of journalists in the presentation of the conflict followed from their need to provide information to electors, and to what extent it meant taking one of the sides. ItemJęzyk dyskursu publicznego w polskim systemie politycznym(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Balczyńska-Kosman, AlinaThese days, political actors use the language of politics not only as a means of communication but as an instrument of competition. Politics is becoming an area of social activity which to a large extent is constituted by words. The issues discussed in this paper involve the definitions of basic concepts and an indication of partici- pants in public discourse, a determination of discourse content and the styles of lan- guage of politics, and the conclusions of the study. The paper emphasizes that the contemporary language of public discourse in the Polish political system is highly colloquial, negative and very often characterized by a lack of respect for opponents. Its participants include political actors, mass media, and the recipients of messages. The language of discourse is primarily shaped by the media in the process of mes- sage priming, framing and tabloidization. ItemOchrona wizerunku w dobie tabloidyzacji mediów(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Skrzypczak, JędrzejExamining modern media markets, one notices a common phenomenon of the predominance of tabloids, which are successful both in terms of readership and economic results. It is most likely the effectiveness and economic efficiency of what these media offer that results in a broader process of all media, whether printed or electronic, ‘contracting the tabloid virus’. This is the context within which media tabloidization is discussed, in the sense of the transformation of traditional, ‘noble’ media formats into social media, characterized by the prevalence of topics that arouse widespread interest (entertainment, celebrity scandals), shocking through sex and violence, and abounding in pictures, which is particularly significant from the point of view of this study. Additionally, press materials are shorter, which typically results in the simplified description of events, frequently violating the principles of good taste. The aim of this study is to suggest legal regulations on the matter of image protection in the context of media tabloidization. ItemZarys tradycji i rozwoju czasopiśmiennictwa regionalistycznego w Wielkopolsce w latach powojennych do 1989 roku(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Kowalczyk, RyszardThis paper presents the tradition and development of regionalist periodicals and publications in Wielkopolska from the end of World War II to 1989. The author refers to the rich traditions of this type of publication dating back to the period of Prussian partition and the inter-war period. He indicates the socio-political conditions of regionalist publications in post-war Poland which actually limited its development. He exemplifies the achievements of social and cultural, scientific, andtourist associations as well as state institutions in maintaining regionalist publica tions from the post-war period to the socio-political transformation of 1989. ItemPamięć społeczna i polityka historyczna w programach polskich partii politycznych(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Olszewski, EdwardThe transformation of the political system in Poland after the negotiations of the ‘Round Table’ resulted in an increased interest in modern history, accompanied by a desire to reckon with the past, in particular with the period of communist rule after 1944. Since the 1990s, government authorities and political parties have made a natural move to legitimize the democratic political system in the area of social memory and historical policy. This process has been initiated by constitutional changes, coupled with a truly spontaneous social movement to change national symbols, names of streets and squares, patrons of schools and universities, institutions and manufacturing plants rooted in the overthrown system of communist Poland. The humanities, in particular historiography, have taken steps to reassess attitudes to Polish and global history. The issues of social memory, national identity and historical policy have been reflected in the ideologies and platforms of various political parties. The issue of social (national) memory has become entangled in political disputes and a struggle for ‘control of the past’, of interpretations of history, the value of patriotism and, by extension, of the electorate, has been waged mainly by the Law and Justice (PiS), Civic Platform (PO), and the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) parties. This paper analyzes and describes the most influential political movements in Poland in the early 21st century as regards their attitude to collective memory and the concept of historical policy. These attitudes are presented in terms of the conservative, liberal, critical and totalitarian ‘models of historical policy’. The study implies that the conservative and liberal models predominate, clearly influenced by the ideology of Christian democracy and national tendencies. The attitude of conservative parties in particular is characterized by disrespect for academic findings and inter- pretations of history, a frequently ad hoc approach to facts and assessments of the past, which follows from a desire to find the in-depth historical legitimization of the status of a given party in society and to dominate the electorate. ItemWspółczesne oblicza władzy politycznej – kilka uwag wstępnych(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Żyromski, MarekThe author discusses the issues of authority (in particular political authority), approaching it as a fragment of a highly complex and extensive subject. He emphasizes that it is extremely difficult to find a notion (as well as a phenomenon, or rather a process) that is equally significant in political science, and yet one that is simultaneously so elusive and difficult to verify pragmatically as authority. He stresses that it has accompanied Homo sapiens since their very beginnings. The basement of the National Museum in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, exhibits the remnants of a skeleton of our great-, great-... (and so on) grandmother, ‘Lucy.’ As we observe the behavior of our hominid relatives (from whom the notion of ‘alpha male’ has been transferred to contemporary politics) it is hard to avoid the idea that Lucy had to fight for her position. Authority permeates all realms of social existence and is present in all historical and contemporary societies. On the most comprehensive macroscale, authority is the core aspect of international political relations, as well as economic relations between states or transnational companies. On a microscale, au- thority is exercised in the most basic human contacts and interactions. It is mani- fested as the authority of state over its citizens, superiors over subordinates, teachers over students, parents over children, and girls over those infatuated with them. It is this universal and common nature of the phenomenon (or process) of authority which occurs both inside and outside politics, and which generates such profound difficulties. ItemТехнологический вектор политической науки и политики: взгляд из России(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Grishin, Oleg E.The paper presents the core of the technological attitude in Russian political science and practice. Certain problems related to its application are identified. The application of the technology of politics guarantees its rationalization, predictability, foundations for the political processes being modeled, and the desired results of the political process. The paper presents the author’s attempt at the periodization of the transformation of technology of political activity. It demonstrates the latest development. ItemUkraine After the Parliamentary Elections of 2012: Selected Scenarios of the Development of the Political Situation(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Donaj, ŁukaszDwadzieścia kilka lat niepodległej Ukrainy to stanowczo za mało, by móc w pełni rzetelnie stawiać hipotezy odnośnie rozwoju sytuacji wewnętrznej i zewnętrznej tego państwa, niemniej jednak, już to pozwala nam snuć pewne przypuszczenia. W artykule przedstawiona jest wizja rozwoju sytuacji politycznej na Ukrainie, jaka zdaniem autora nastąpi - a raczej już następuje - po wyborach parlamentarnych z 2012. Owa - uproszczona - wizja skonstruowana jest w oparciu o jedną z metod prognozowania, zwaną metodą scenariusza międzynarodowego. Biorąc pod uwagę fakt, że prognozowanie zjawisk społecznych bywa pod wieloma względami utrudnione (co wynika m.in. z tego, że w naturze tych zjawisk tkwi silne i wielostronne powiązanie z innymi zjawiskami społecznymi; ale nie tylko - także fizycznymi czy biologicznymi) w artykule przywołano wybrane problemy prognozowania, zwłaszcza te związane z metodą scenariusza międzynarodowego, następnie odniesiono ową metodę do sytuacji politycznej na Ukrainie. Zdaniem Autora Ukraina w kolejnych latach znajdzie się - a raczej już się znajduje - na równi pochyłej, staczając się w stronę reżimów autorytarnych, lub przynajmniej “umacniając się” wśród reżimów hybrydowych. ItemPrzemiany demograficzne i procesy migracyjne w Obwodzie Kaliningradzkim Federacji Rosyjskiej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Sakson, AndrzejContemporary Russia is going through the most severe demographic crisis in her history. The situation is particularly adverse in the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation, which borders Poland. Since 2007, its authorities have been implementing a special program to repatriate Russians from abroad. Up to 2012, 19,000 Russian settlers came to the Oblast, while the authorities had expected over 300,000 individuals. The reasons are deemed to be the relatively low earnings in the Oblast and its being an exclave.