Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny, 1990, nr 1


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    Spis treści RPEiS 52(1), 1990
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990)
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    Technika prawodawcza
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Wronkowska, Sławomira
    Legislative technique is nowadays of basic importance for securing the adequate level of legal systems. The article analyses the notion and tasks of legislative technique, characterizes the directives of legislative technique from a formal point of view (i.e. as sui generis technical direction), and from a substantive point of view, points to the deficiencies of contemporary legislative technique and analyses the problems of statutory regulation of legislative technique.
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    Wolność zrzeszania się obywateli według prawa o stowarzyszeniach z 1989 r.
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Wiśniewski, Leszek
    The article discusses four problems: political conditions existing at a time of the adoption of a new Law on Associations; types of associations regulated by the Law; the notion of freedom of association in the light of the Law and the consistence of the Polish Law with International Covenant on Citizens' and Political Rights. The author states that the Law on Associations of 1989 is the element of deep changes in the political system of the State. It reflects the demands of the society, which has since long formulated the postulates of widening the scope of political rights or liberties, especially with respect to freedom of association in trade unions, associations and political parties. In a larger part of his article the author considers the question whether the Law on Associations of 1989 is applicable also to political parties. This problem is analysed in the context of praxis, the provisions of the Law of 1989 and the Constitution. A considerable part of considerations concerns the notion of freedom of association and solutions adopted by the Law of 1989. The author concludes that the new Law is consistent with the principle of citizens freedom of association. The expression of that principle is found in guaranties of freedom to form associations, freedom to acquire and give up membership in associations and members' freedom to determine the aims and programmes of activity of associations. In the last part of his article the author states that the Law on Associations of 1989 is consistent with the requirements of international law determined in the International Covenant on Citizens' and Political Rights.
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    Zgoda uprawnionego w zakresie ochrony dóbr osobistych
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Szpunar, Adam
    In legal writing various views have been expressed with respect to the consent of the entitled person. According to the prevailing view, it is one of the conditions eliminating the unlawfulness of the infringement of personal interests. However, the proponents of this view admit that consent fulfills many functions. It may eliminate the very infringement of some personal interests (image, secrecy of mail). The most important function of consent consists in its capacity to eliminate the unlawfulness of behaviour. The article contains the analysis of the above problems on the basis of Polish civil law. It does not consider penal law issues. The author is of the opinion that providing for the conditions of validity of consent in the amended Civil Code is not necessary. According to a rather generally accepted view, the consent of the entitled person is a unilateral revokable legal action Legal consequences occur here irrespective of the intention of the acting behavior. The borderline between the consent of the entitled person and the activity undertaken at one's own risk is blurred. The article contains a detailed analysis of the application of consent. The consent of the entitled person is very important in medical treatment. In principle, any treatment, especially surgery, requires the consent of the patient. Similar situation takes place in matters of special interest today (e.g. the admissibility of ex vivo transplants). Here, very strict criteria of consent should be applied. Next, the author discusses the application of consent in sport. The participation in brutal or dangerous sport competitions (especially in boxing) is tantamount to the consent to slight bodily injury and infringement of personal inviolability. The article contains also the analysis of the consequences of consent in the sphere of protection of other personal interests (especially privacy). In the sphere of personal interest protection the Roman Law adage volenti non jit iniuria is of limited significance. The intencity of personal interests protection would be weakened if too wide application of the construction of consent were adopted. Its subjective and objective premises must be precisely determined. There is no uniform answer to the question of how the freedom of decision of a person who gives his/her consent is shaped.
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    Finansowanie rolnictwa w Polsce (Zarys koncepcji)
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Komar, Andrzej
    The problems of financing the agriculture gain in importance in connection with its so-called „marketization". The article discusses the condition of agriculture and the problems of introducing market elements to agricultural production. The author explains misunderstanding connected with the above question. They are the consequence of the fact that in Poland little is known about the rules of market economy. The author is in favour of financial protection of agriculture in favour of cheap credits, subventions, tax exemptions and reliefs, and foundations of various kinds for agriculture. Without such protection agriculture would not be able to supply the market with sufficient volume of possibly cheap food. The reform of financing the agriculture should constitute the part of general reform of Polish economy. The author suggests that solutions adopted in the 1050s by the EEC should be applied in that respect. The means to be used are: guaranteed prices of food produce, export subventions and agricultural duties. The system of financing the EEC agriculture is of interventionistic character. The introduction of fully developed market mechanisms to Polish agriculture is not possible due to the underdevelopment of agricultural industry and service sectors.
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    Zmiany w prawie dewizowym
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Gomułowicz, Andrzej
    The previous currency law of Nov. 22, 1983 imposed many restrictions on currency transactions, making it impossible to implement market mechanisms into that sphere of economic activity. Basic assumptions of a new Foreign Currency Act of Feb. 15, 1989 is the principle according to which the duty to obtain a permit to enter into a foreign currency transaction is required only in matters expressly stated in the Act. It means that the Act introduces freedom of foreign currency transactions in relations indifferent from the point of view of economic and foreign currency interests of the State. Besides, the new law provides for statutory guaranties of foreign currency property rights. However, it also imposes on economic units the duty to resell to the foreign currency banks part of those units' revenues in foreign currency. The Act introduces also foreign currency auctions, open for all economic units. The auction price of foreign currency is to be shaped by supply/demand rules. The Act, in an attempt to protect Polish currency, introduces the duty to obtain foreign currency permit for payments for goods, services and labour if these payments are to be effected in Poland between so-called domestic persons. The permit is necessary also in case of taking Polish currency and Polish securities abroad. A new solution is the provision allowing the retired persons who receive their pensions from foreign insurance companies to collect part of their allowances in foreign currency. The new Law, although not free from defects, is a step in the right direction. Future amendment, justified by the requirements of social and economic praxis, are nonetheless indispensable. They should be aimed at furthering the liberalization of foreign currency law.
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    Wyłączenie małżonka od dziedziczenia ustawowego (art. 940 k.c.)
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Stecki, Leopold
    The author analyses various issues connected with the situation where a surviving spouse is excluded from intestate succession by a court's decision rendered on application of any of the remaining statutory heirs appoonted to the inheritance concurrently with the surviving spouse. The author formulates several proposals de lege ferenda. Among them attention should be paid to the interpretation according to which the term „exclusion from inheritance" should be construed as referring also to the deprivation of obligatoryportion of the inheritance (legitim). Apart from substantive law issues, the author analyses many procedural questions connected with the application of Art. 940 of the Civil Code.
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    Uprawnienia normotwórcze Międzynarodowej Organizacji Morskiej
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Gilas, Janusz
    International Maritime Organization (IMO) is equipped with considerable legislative competence consisting in passing recommendations and international conventions. Conventions become binding after their ratification, and recommendations — after their implementation. In the case of Poland, when out of 635 decrees of IMO we are bound only by 4, with 1 of them in an outdated version, a solution might be to leave the question of ratification of international codes, codes, indications and handbooks to the Minister of Transport, Navigation and Communication, while the ratification of other decrees might be left to the director of Polish Register of Ships, to directors of Maritime Offices or to directors of sea-ports or other maritime enterprises. A problem in Poland is how to acquaint all interested persons with the contents of those decrees. According to the requirements of the legislative technique, ordinances of the Minister of Transport would have to be published in one of the promulgation organs (Dziennik Ustaw, Monitor Polski, Dziennik Urzędowy). Because of the great number of decrees which, in order to create safe conditions of navigation, should be ratified, it seems necessary to use the method of publishing a comprehensive index of decrees, indicating the institution which collects the texts. In all other cases it seems possible to publish and collect the texts in the IMO Centre at the Polish Register of Ships in Gdańsk. IMO conventions do not guarantee a full uniformization of maritime law on a world scale. Summing up, one may say that the conventions are not self- -executing agreements and that with respect to ratifying annexes a principle of individual opting-out has not been adopted. For these reasons IMO international maritime law cannot be identified with domestic maritime law. In order to distinguish the former from the latter the term „international maritime legislation" should be used.
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    Problemy ujednolicenia ochrony własności przemysłowej i swobodnego przepływu towarów w europejskim jednolitym rynku wewnętrznym oraz w obrocie z krajami trzecimi
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Beier, Friedrich-Karl
    The author, Director of the Max Planck Institute for International Patent, Copyright and Competition Law in Munich considers the influence of full uniformization of the EEC market after 1992 on the protection of industrial property and on free flow of goods within the Community. He pays much attention to the relations between the internal legal systems regulating the protection of patents, trademarks, designs and copyrights to the law of the Community. Both in the present as well as in the past — 1992 prospective regulation of the EEC law a departure from the protection granted by internal (national) legal systems seems not only undesirable but also impossible. Much time is needed for common European protection laws to supersede the coexisting protection provided by internal systems. The analysis of particular industrial property rights allows the author to formulate the conclusion that the greatest progress in that respect has been achieved in the EEC patent law; European patents granted on the strength of the Munich Convention of 1973 are much in demand. It should be stressed that the creation by the end of 1992 of uniform internal EEC market is a strong incentive for intensifying the works on the uniformization of industrial property protection. The author also analyses the decisions of the EEC Court with respect to the law on industrial property and free flow of goods on the EEC market, paying special attention to decisions based on Art. 36 of the Treaty of Rome. As to the relation between the principle of free flow of goods and the restrictions resulting from internal systems of industrial property law hitherto existing decisions of the EEC Court will fully remain in force also after 1992. The Court adopted a principle, well known in German law since long, of exhaustion of a right to trademark. This principle allows neither to divide the Common Market by means of national trademarks nor to isolate it from goods produced or reimported from the outside of the Common Market as long as such goods have been provided with a trademark by an authorized person. Circulation restrictions are to maintain arificially high prices for trademarked goods. Towards the end of his article the author points out that there is a danger of changing that situation once the European trademark law comes into force. Recently, under the pressure of industrial lobbies, views have been expressed that this law should regulate only the institution of „European" and not „exterritorial" exhaustion of a right. Such a short-sighted and economically unjustified regulation could lead to the protectionistic isolation of the Community from the rest of the world. The author is strongly for retaining the conception of exterritorial exhaustion of a right to a trademark.
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    Orientacja prorynkowa w zarządzaniu przedsiębiorstwami
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Strużycki, Marian; Szulce, Halina
    In order to achieve a high level of economic development it is necessary to work out a pro-market orientation comprising the processes of producing goods for domestic and foreign markets. Then, pro-market orientation is the main determinant of methods to be applied in managing the enterprise and the basis for shaping the regulative processes in the economy. The said orientation brings about certain consequences, both for the development of stock structures as well as for the speed of achieving the economic balance. Of special significance for the latter process is the capacity of the production to adjust to the needs of specific customers, its capacity to retain a high technological level and its capacity to take into account elementary requirements with respect to marketing procedures on given markets. Strengthening pro-market orientation contributes to a greater autonomy of economic activity in an enterprise, creates the possibilities to integrate consumption and production goods markets, concretizes market functions of an enterprise and supplements them with quantitative and qualitative relations. It also evokes and shapes competition mechanisms, sets high standards for the organizational structure of an enterprise, and forces the management to change their qualifications and attitudes. The article describes all the above changes and points to a new situation with respect to managing the enterprises in the light of changes in local relations and conditions and in the light of modifications in market functions of enterprises
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    Przesłanki budowy teorii zmian konsumpcji we współczesnej gospodarce polskiej
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Żabiński, Leszek
    In the author's opinion, the present theory of consumption in Polish economy fulfills its explanatory tasks (although not prognostic ones) with respect to pre- -crisis phases of consumption and economic development. However, the said theory, and especially its assumptions, need to be revised if they are to be useful in contemporary studies on variations in consumption processes in Poland. Referring to the fundamental aims and motives of research carried out within the Branch Basic Research Project (RPBP No. III. 39 ("Changes in the Structure of Consumption") the author presents the most important theory — construction assumptions adopted in the synthesis of the above research project. In a socialist system, the long-term optimum level of consumption may not be the aim of economic activity. Instead, such an aim may be the achievement of economic surplus (in the stage of production, exchange and consumption) and maximalization of social utility effect with respect to market-verified outlays. The consumption itself is not only the effect of economic activity but also one of the main productive forces that contribute to the creation of that surplus both during working time as well as during the time off. If so, the consumption may at best be shaped indirectly by means of future models of consumption (which are chosen by consumers through their voting for election platforms of main political groups) and by means of market mechanisms, supported by parametric steering applied until full marketization of the socialist economy is reached. In the future, social consumption, including collective consumption, will remain the main field of that steering. Referring to the reinterpreted principles of the consumption theory in the socialist economy the author confronts them with detailed theoretical assumptions of research in particular subjects of RPBP III 39 project.
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    Gospodarka ukryta w Polsce i jej znaczenie
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Grzegorczyk, Wojciech
    The article is concerned with the problems of functioning of hidden economy in Poland. It presents and systematizes the causes of development of hidden economy and evaluates its role and significance. The causes of its development originate from the essence of management and planning in socialist economy as well as from the current economic policy. The evaluation of hidden economy is difficult because one has to take into account the fact that often the instruments applied by the State towards economic units encourage or even force them to undertake activity within the sphere of hidden economy. One should also distinguish between the activity which is evidently illegal and undertaken on a mass scale and the side-line activity having the character of help rendered to neighbours or sale of one's own produce. The grey- -sector economic activity undoubtedly lowers the income of the State (tax evasions) and leads to severing official economic ties between the market subjects. It also lowers the productivity of economic subjects in the official sector and encourages their negative innovativeness consisting mostly in looking for ways to get around the law. Despite these negative consequences, hidden economy brings also economic advantages. It fills up gaps in supply provided by official sectors, it diminishes the inflation gap, it gives rise to the foundation of new, well equipped market segments and complements the administrative distribution of goods and raw materials. The consequence of its existence is also the growth in income and level of consumption of people participating in the grey sector. The processes of differentiation of levels of consumption increase. One may conclude that the income from official economy serve to satisfy basic needs, whereas the improvement in level of consumption and the growth in real income of the population is connected with the activity in the grey economy sector. Neutralizing the negative consequences of grey economy with respect to private sector should consist among others in introducing order to the economic law, in limiting the authorities' competences to enforce new laws and in guaranting the stability of principles of private sector operation. As to socialized sectors, the scope of administrative regulation of economic processes should be limited and the financial system of enterprises should be adjusted to the requirements of self- -financing and economic self-dependence. The above steps may, in the long run, result in the integration of many forms of hidden economy with its lawful counterpart. In conditions of radical changes in the economic system, i.e. in view of socialization and privatization of the economy, the significance of hidden economy should also be subject to changes. Some of its forms should disappear or decrease, while others (i.e. tax frauds) may develop rapidly. However, in conditions of the liberalization of economic legislation and the legalization of most of the forms of hidden economy, the continued activity in the grey sector should be subject to financial restrictions.
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    Badanie zmienności kosztów przedsiębiorstwa handlu detalicznego w warunkach współliniowości zmiennych kosztotwórczych
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Witkowski, Marek
    The article undertakes an attempt to investigate the variability of cost of a retail enterprise. The problems connected with this task are not easy to solve. They require the methods that would reduce negative consequences of strong corelations between variables explaining the variability of costs. The existence of such corelations (i.e. of co-linearity of variables) is detrimental for a correct determination of intensity and direction of influence of particular cost-creating factors on cosi It may also be responsible for mistaking an insignificant cost- -creating variable for a significant one. Nowadays, many methods of neutralizing co-linearity exist. Among them, ridge regression method is considered highly efficient. The article exemplifies application of the latter method to the cost analysis of a retail enterprise and compares its results with the results of the classic method of smallest squares by verifying the regression models of cost assessed by both methods. The advantages and disadvantages of ridge regression method in the context of classic regression method have been examined.
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    Identyfikacja czynników określających koszty jednostkowe w przedsiębiorstwie handlowym (Próba refleksji metodycznej)
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Witkowska, Aleksandra
    The article is an attempt to present the conception of methods of identifying the factors determining unit costs in a retail enterprise. Three methods have been presented. The first procedure allows the choice of variables on the basis of individual equations of regression. In the second procedure also the analytical forms of individual regression functions are selected. They may be non-linear with respect to potential variables. Then, correlations between variables and linear transformates of potential variables are analysed. The third method leads to obtaining so-called similarity measures, being the basis for the choice of variables. Cognitive properties of the above methods have been presented on empirical data gathered ina retail enterprise operating in municipal area. Besides, the article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the above methods as well as some methodological findings useful in applying these methods in cost balance. 13*
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    Próba określenia systemów rolniczego użytkowania ziemi oraz poziomu ich intensywności w Polsce
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Wysocki, Feliks
    The article undertakes an attempt to determine the systems of agricultural exploitation of land for groups of provinces distinguished on the basis of similarity of structures of agricultural exploitation of land. The 1987 data on exploitation of farmland and the area of crops in particular provinces have been utilized. The research procedure consisted, in the first stage, in grouping the provinces according to the criterion of land exploitation structure and, in the second stage, according to the criterion of types of crops prevailing in a given structure. The findings allowed to ascribe names to different systems of land exploitation. The analysis resulted in distinguishing 19 groups of provinces similar from the point of view of land exploitation structure and 18 different types of systems. The above classifications were the basis for characterizing the systems and their intensity on the background of production conditions.
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    Dylematy rozwoju infrastruktury gospodarczej wsi i rolnictwa na przykładzie województwa poznańskiego
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Wilczyńska, Kamila
    The development of village infrastructure requires a number of steps connected with large capital investment. Usually, infrastructural investment does not bring spectacular quick direct effects. It takes more time to be carried out and its effects can be seen usually some time after the beginning of exploitation. A review of developmental processes of infrastructural equipment of villages and agriculture in Poznań Province between 1978 - 1987, i.e. in the period of considerable set-back in the economic growth of the country, shows that the civilization level of villages is still far from municipal standards. Besides, the principle of complementarity in investment undertakings is not observed. Despite economic difficulties, small-scale investment (e.g. investing in non-conventional sources of energy) is still neglected. In view of priority granted to food economy one can say that the development of economic infrastructure of villages and agriculture does not correspond with the needs of agriculture and food economy, limiting to a considerable extent their growth.
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    Zagraniczne inwestycje bezpośrednie jako kanał transferu technologii w rozwiniętych krajach kapitalistycznych
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Czerwieniec, Eugeniusz
    Direct capital investment made abroad by big multinational corporations are in principle the main channel of the international transfer of modern technology. One may even say that the growth of big multinational firms and development of modern technology are mutually interdependent. The almost simultaneous appearance of these two phenomena countributed to the turn in the way of thinking in classical theories of international trade. Since that time it has been suggested that theoretical considerations should include new factors of production and that hitherto existing views on their international mobility may be regarded as absolete. A long-term exploitation of technological primacy of a multinational corporation on foreign markets is realized due to the transfer of new technologies through the following channels: export of production goods, sale of licences, foreign direct investment and the migration of scientists and qualified technical personnel. The determination of relative significance of particular channels is a difficult task. It seems that the most important means of transfer of modern technology is foreign direct investment. The importance of other channels is to a great extent conditioned upon the character and technology of production, and the country and period of transfer. Nowadays, it is generally believed that the spread and efficient exploitation of new technology is an important source of economic growth of developed industrial countries, brings about the changes in the structure of international trade, contributes to the development of national technological skills and brings so-called scientific advantages as well as advantages in the sphere of management and organization.
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    Problemy i perspektywy współczesnego ładu w handlu światowym
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Sauernheimer, Karl-Hans
    The article refers to the most important problems of contemporary international economic relations, with special attention paid to the causes and consequences of growing protectionistic and discriminatory tendencies in international trade. The growth of protectionism is the outcome of growing competition on the part of Japan and newly industralized countries as well as of instability of monetary conditions. Over- and undervalue of currencies give rise to employment problems and difficulties in balances of payment, leading to the intensification of protectionistic trade policy and to the growth of restrictions in international trade exchange. The analysis of the problems of contemporary order in world trade in regional and branch aspects leads to several conclusions. Firstly, administrative methods of control and stabilization of export income and prices in developing countries are for the most part inefficient Developing countries may gain more profit from liberalization rather than regulation of trade. Secondly, if the socialist countries introduce appropriate changes in their economies, they may achieve profits from the specialization of production also by increasing their "openness". Thirdly, agricultural and textile sectors belong to the most "regulated" ones. Reducing the degree of regulation of these two sectors is difficult not only because basic controversies occur between developed and developing countries but also among the countries belonging to the first of the two groups. The increase in prospective efficiency of GATT makes it necessary to adjust its rules to contemporary tendencies in international economic relations. In particular, it is indispensable to coordinate financial and monetary aspects of macroeconomic policy between main trade and political organizations. Moreover, structural adjustment of developed countries in traditional sectors is also indispensable. GATT should also provide for the exceptions to its own rules in order to present the development of uncontrolled restrictive regulations in international exchange.
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    Typy udziału młodzieży w kulturze a poziom przystosowania
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990) Sosnowski, Adam
    The article starts with a series of questions concerning the relations between particular levels of adjustment and the forms and contents of the youths' participation in culture. Having commented on basic dilemmas of contemporary adjustment, the author distinguished and discussed five basic types of the youths' participation in culture, determined according to the criterion of the level of social adjustment. The first (the lowest) level consists in participation in massand pop-culture in institutional frames, with the elements of revolt and individualism. A characteristic feature of the second level of adjustment is the past association with local cultural institutions and the present participation in cultural institutions of more universal character. A determinant of the third level of adjustment is cultural superficiality and syncretism. The essence of the fourth level of adjustment is the continuity of interests and the past participation in school extracurricular activities. Finaly, a characteristic symptom of the fifth (the highest) level of adjustment is the autotelic (in the past) and pragmatic (at present) character of the reading habit. The article ends with the confrontation of the adjustment levels with the character of the youths' participation in culture. In that part the author synthetically discusses the stages and periods of adjustment in relation to the types of participation in culture. Here, the author distinguished eight types of participation in culture, starting from the simplest one (habitual), characterized by the mere participation in mass culture, and ending with the fullest and comprehensive participation, characterized i.a. by one's own creative activity. 10
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    Przegląd piśmiennictwa RPEiS 52(1), 1990
    (Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016, 1990)
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego