- ItemIstotne naruszenie zobowiązania jako przesłanka odpowiedzialności kontraktowej w Konwencji Wiedeńskiej(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1994) Napierała, JacekThe use of a uniform institution of a "breach of contract" does not rule out the practicability of combining specific sanctions with certain types of breach. In this respect a fundamental breach plays an important role in the Vienna Convention. The article aims at systemizing the problems arising in the practical application of this institution. A fundamental breach is singled out on its basis of its result, namely: (1) the loss of either party's interest; (2) which was unpredictable. The combination of certain sanctions with a qualified form of an infringement to the creditor's interest gives rise to the question about the criterion of such qualification. Four criteria were considered during discussions about the uniform law for contracts of sale. The Convention decided in favour of the degree of dissatisfaction of the creditor's expectations related to performance as the criterion of a "fundamental" breach. The degree of dissatisfaction depends for instance on the possibility of removing a defect from delivered goods. The last opinion can be proven by describing the fundamental nature of breach without making reference to provisions relating to sanctions in case of such breach. Institutions of Polish law having their counterparts in the Convention are presented in the conclusion.
- ItemPolska a Wspólnota Europejska - uwagi o współpracy i integracji gospodarczej(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1994) Winiarski, BolesławThe article outlines the problems and difficulties arising in the process of co-operation and gradual economic integration of Poland and the European Community (or, currently: the European Union). These difficulties are related on the one hand to the maintaining by the EC of various trade barriers with regard to post-socialist countries, on the other hand to the incompatibility of Poland's economy with the EC standards, particularly those concerning the quality of products. The transitional period provided for in the Association Agreement is therefore very useful for broadly planned adjustment programs. The necessary strengthening of the competitiveness of Poland's economy may be obtained through an active industrial policy, as well as a subtle yet effective protection of the local market. The great challenge of the integration of the formerly separated parts of Europe can be met more easily with the help of a closer regional co-operation between the so-called Visegrad countries. Their current rivalry should thus be superseded by the co-ordination of actions aiming at integration with the EC.
- ItemRegionalna polityka strukturalna Republiki Federalnej Niemiec (podstawowe koncepcje)(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1994) Dąbrowski, AdamBasic elements of t h e regional structural policy in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented in the paper. The role of t he regional structural policy is first described in order to identify its objectives, scope, subjects, and instruments. The regional structural policy is a well-established component of the FRG's economic policy. A lederai state structure necessitates some specific regulations of the problem of relations between objects. The pyramid of objectives adopted within a social market economy defines the objectives of the regional structural policy. These objectives, in turn, determine appropriate instruments. Both theoretical and practical experience indicates that regardless of the extent of the state's economic interventionism, a regional structural policy must be continued.
- ItemStymulowanie rozwoju południowych Włoch jako przykład interwencji państwa w odniesieniu do regionów opóźnionych(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1994) Klamut, Mirosława; Gogolewska, JadwigaThe paper focuses on the Italian state's regulatory influence on regional development. Particularly the regional policy between 1950 and 1989 is described in great detail. The set of instruments known as extraordinary intervention has never functioned properly, for various reasons: the incompatibility between actions of different governments or their purposes, the absence of co-ordination of locally formulated regional plans, a low degree of concreteness. Notwithstanding this partially critical assessment of the Italian experience, it is suggested that some of t h e specific solutions may be used in Poland, because Poland's regional policy should now address the problems of underdeveloped regions and be move active in the enhancing of structural regional development.
- ItemRegulacja taryf w sieciowych przedsiębiorstwach użyteczności publicznej(Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1994) Jeżowski, PiotrNetwork companies (telecommunication, water supply and sewage, heating, city transport) action as natural monopolies, thus practically eliminating free competition. Therefore specific Problems arise in fixing tariffs for such services and thoughtful regulations are necessary for an appropriate organization of t h e market.