Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny, 1986, nr 2


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    Spis treści RPEiS 48(2), 1986
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986)
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    Interpretacja Międzynarodowego paktu praw obywatelskich i politycznych w świetle raportów Komitetu Praw Człowieka
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Michalska, Anna
    Three important anniversaries are to be observed in the international activity in the field of the protection of Human Rights in 1986. It was 20 years ago when the General Assembly adopted International Covenants on Human Rights. 10 years ago those international instruments entered into force. 10 years have passed since the Committee on Human Rights was created, it excercises control upon implementation of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. These aniversaries stem reflections and analyses. The subject matter of the article is the interpretation of provisions of the Covenant performed by the Committee in the pro-cess of studying reports of the States Parties. The article was prepared mostly on the basis of the annual reports submitted to the General Assembly by the Committee, The article consists of three parts. The first one discusses competence bestowed upon the Committee by the Covenant and Optional Protocol. This information is intend ed to serve as a kind of introduction to the further deliberations. The second part presents the forms in which the Committee can express its views and opinions. It is the case of general comments and of discussions in the process of studying reports of States Parties., In the first instance we have to deal with a position of the Committee, while in the second with the opinions and views of its particular members. In the third part the authoress analyses main directions in interpretation of the general clauses (art. 1-4 of the Covenant) and of some provisions formulating the catalog of human rights (part III of the Covenant). In the opinion of the authoress, the Committee's interpretation is sometimes exceeding the verbal meaning of the Covenant provisions. The interpretation of the right to life can serve here as an example. The Committee has exhibited here an ouvert tendency of law making which was met with reservations of some of its members. The authoress on her part does not attempt at evaluating the efectiveness of the international control system, based on reports of States Parties to the Committee. Yet she is advocating the opinion that considerations of the Committee can contribute to unifying implementation of Human Rights by States. In spite of the fact that these considerations are not legally binding for those States.
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    Poszukiwanie alternatyw dla kary pozbawienia wolności — ujęcie prawno porównawcze
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Tobis, Aleksander
    The article is divided into four parts. The first one discusses the efforts of the Committee of Delinquency Problems, the organ of the Council of Europe, in the field of organizational and scientific actions concerning the problems of searching alternative means to deprivation of liberty punishment. Several recommendations and resolutions were passed. Also the socialist States undertook certain efforts in order to avoid application of the deprivation of liberty punishment,. It was expressed at the conference of the representatives of ministries of justice, which took place in September 1981. The second part is the analysis of reasons justifying the search for the new forms of fighting the crime. The arguments quoted most often are: economic considerations, lost trust in the effectiveness of punishment of deprivation of liberty, continuing social disintegration of the persons sentenced to a prison term, psychological, sociological, pragmatic and humanitarian considerations. The third part is devoted to the comparative law review of the solutions alternative to deprivation of liberty punishment,, i.e. the means of a traditional character: fine, conditional sentencing in variants, as well as newer solutions, like reformatory labor, other forms of labor for social goals, deprivation of a driving licence, forfeiture of property, interdiciton of excercising a specified profession, protective supervision, penalty of restricted liberty, pedagogical means, and others. The whole of discussion is concluded in the fourth part of the article with the regard paid to the Polish solutions.
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    Obowiązywanie reguły ignorantia iuris nocet w odniesieniu do cudzoziemców
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Płachta, Michał
    In relation to the international personal traffic and tourism there are situations encountered in penal proceedings when defendants are pleading ignorance of the Polish penal law, on top of it, in some cases the ignorance is also fostered by different socio-cultural conditions, system of moral norms and ethical values. According to the ancient Roman principle everyone, including also aliens, must know the penal law, thus ignorance of the law cannot be treated as a circumstance precluding a penal responsibility. Yet, the aliens find themselves in much worse situations then the (locals, a question thus anises whether they could be offered more „priviledged" treatment in the context of the „ignorantia iuris nocet" principle. Art. 24 par. 2 of the Penal Code proclaims that ignorance of illegality of act cannot preclude penal responsibility under condition that a perpetrator was able to avoid his error. If he was able to avoid his ignorance as to illegality, and committed an intentional offence, then the court may apply the extraordinary mitigation of they of the penalty (par. 3). If an allien-defendant explains committing his unlawful act by a custom adopted in his home society the Polish courts cannot take it as a circumstance excluding penal responsibility in principle, nor as mitigating it- contrary to the British jurisdictions, according to which a court may renounce of inflicting a punishment. The effect of ignorance of the law exhibited by aliens ought to be discussed against the background of the division of offences into: mala in są and mala prohibita. The author advocates that the ignorantia iuris is legally irrelevant in relation to the first group offences, but it has to be considered in case of certain offences of the second group.
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    Współdziałanie rad narodowych z zawodowymi organami kontroli zewnętrznej
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Szewczyk, Marek
    The subject of the elaboration is the cooperation which is expected between people's councils and professionally acting subjects of control situated outside of the councils system. The said subjects are to develop the cooperation by the rule of The People's Councils and Territorial Self-government Act of 1983. The author of the article presents the issue from the people's councils viewpoint and first and foremost from the viewpoint of the act. In the first part of the article the range of subjects obliged to eoperate with people's councils in the domain of control is stated,. The subjects lare divided by the author into two groups. One of them is professional subjects of external control, situated in the administrative branch. The so called branch inspections play the essential part among the subjects of that group. The second group is subjects of professional control situated outside of the administration. Locai organizational units of the Supreme Chamber of Control are the main element of that group. Further parts of the article are devoted to discussing forms in which people's councils are to cooperate with the previously indicated institutions excercising control in the professional manner. The author distinguishes basically two groups of forms: session forms, realized by the councils at their sessions and extra-session forms. The latter are realized by the councils throught their organs. The main part is to be played lin this respect by the councils'" presidia, being the organizers of their work. In the conclusion the author indicates at virtues and shortcomings of the present regulation. In his opinion, one must positively grade ranking the peoples councils duty to cooperate with the subjects excercising control upon administration as the statutory duty, both of the peoples councils and of the said subejcts of control. The shortcomings of the present regulation are in the author's opinion (related mostly to not precise wording of the legali (regulation, particularly as regards these provisions which define the forms of peoples councils cooperation with the professional subjects of external control.
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    Stanowienie zarządzeń porządkowych w okresie stanu wyjątkowego
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Hauser, Roman; Ziemski, Krystian
    The article dwells on the problems of lawmaking by the local organs of State's authorities and by the organs of state administration of general competence, functionally related to them. Particular attention was focused on enacting legal acts in emergengent situations calling for immediate action resulted by the state of threatening security, public order or disasters. Discussion of the presently enforced legal state in the respect of local lawmaking is proceeded by ithe theoretical reflectionis. Among others, the need of granting local organs lawmaking competence is discussed as well as norms granting the said competence. Two distinct means of granting legislative competence are indicated, this becomes a basis to differentiate two groups of local acts. The first one comprises acts of the executive character, enacted on the grounds of particular competence provided in the statutes. The second one comprises the so called "self-contained" acts in such a sense that their basis is nothing more but the general competence to enact certain legal acts. The "self-contained" acts can be enacted in order to divert a state of threatening of certain interests or its results. The character of legal acts to be enacted on the grounds of the Peoples' Councils and Territorial Self-Government Act is analysed on the basis of the findings obtained. What is particularly thoroughly analysed are the legal acts which can be enacted by the-administration organs of the voivodship (district) level on the grounds of the Emergency State Act competence. The said acts are named by the legislator as public order regulations, that notion has been previously referred to the acts of special character enacted by the local organs on the basis of the Peoples' Councils Act. It is ascertained in the result that the notion is used by the legislator exceptionally in a context different to the previous understanding. For these are acts of the executive character, enacted exclusively by administration organs of the voivodship level, having no common traits with regulations containing public order provisions, introduced by the Peoples Councils and Territorial Self- -Goverrrment Act.
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    W sprawie inicjatywy ustawodawczej
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Szmyt, Andrzej
    In a form of case study the analysis concerns various aspects of legislative initiative. The author observes a possibility of widening a range of subjects of the initiative, mainly by social organizations, of institutionalizing legislative inspiration, popular inspiration. Withdrawing a bill is possible only upon obtaining a consent of the Parliament. The principle of discontinuity of works has to be refused. The analysis pertains to the specificity of the initiative of members of the Seym, unilaterality of the aspect of introducing a draft of the law is emphasised with the respect to separating from the contribution to preparation of the draft. (A form of the initiative should enable the control fulfilling exingencies, mainly passing a bill by the government. It is desirable to precise the requirements, like indicating at certain acts within preparatory works stage to condition starting the processing of the bill. It is imperative to institutionalize elements of the grounds of the draft and annexing drafts of executive acts. A notion of bill in the light of legal regulation and practice is analysed. The postulates to increase the M.P.'s influence on the bill can be realized in various organizational forms. The author admits a varied manner of carrying out the initiative subject to the stage of preparatory works, and a right to initiative within a statutory scope of activity of the entitled subject. The importance of social accessibility of the subject of initiative is emphasised, including social drafts of the law as substratum of works of the M. P.'s. In spite of the dominating governmental legislative analysis it is possible to utilize the M. P.'s activity to a higher degree. Also the activity of social subjects should become a durable factor of legislative initiatives. The analysis is concluded by the postulates on the bill of the Lawmaking Act.
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    Sądownictwo konstytucyjne a demokracja parlamentarna w RFN
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Schefold, Dian
    Der Aufsatz umfasst die Analyse der Verhältnisse zwischen der Verfassungsgerichtbarkeit und der parlamentarischen Demokratie in der BRD. Erst nach 1918 halten sich die Gerichte für zuständig, Gesetze unter Berufung auf die Verfassung zu verwerfen, von der Zeit wenn das Gesetz nicht mehr als Wille des Monarchen verstanden wurde. Der Parlamentarische Rat akzeptierte auch das richterliche Prüfungsrecht. Die Einleitungsproblematik wurde im Zusammenhang mit der Zweiteilung der Prüfung der Gültigkeit von Rechtsvorschriften (das Gesetz oder die Vorschrift niedrigeren Ranges) dargestellt. Nach der Meinung des Verfassers steht das Bundesverfassungsgericht in einem Spannungsfeld zum parlamentarisch-demokratischen System, wenn er spezifisch politische Gerichtsgarkeit ausübt. In der BRD ist aber eine der Leistungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts, dass er die historischen Vorgaben und Legitimationsprobleme im Rahmen des parlamentarisch-demokratischen Systems bewältigt hat. Dazu trugen auch äussere Faktoren bei. Der Verfasser stellte wichtigste Zuständigkeitsbereiche des Bundesverfassungsgerichts unter der Berücksichtigung der besonderen Eigenheiten dar. Er zeigt die abstrakte Normenkontrolle und die Kontrolle im Rahmen gerichtlicher Prozesse. Er bespricht Konzentration der Verwerfungsko'mpetenz, Schutzbeireich des vorkonstitutionellen Rechts, verfassungstheoretische Grundlagen der gerichtlichen Normenkontrolle, Kraft der bundesverfassungsgerichtlichen Entscheidungen. Umfangreich wurde die individuelle Verfassungsbeschwende dargestellt. Es geht hier um Angriffsgegenstand, Anfechtungsgrund, Annahmeverfahren und Bedeutung. Im Verhältnis zu der ordentlichen Garantie des Rechtswegs kann sie die Funktion eines subsidären Rechtsbehelfs haben. Sie verstärkt den Charakter der Verfassungsgerichtsbairkeiit als Teil der rechtsprechenden Gewalt. Das Bundesverfassungsgericht sucht sich aber darauf zu beschränken, spezifisch verfassungsrechtliche Gesichtspunkt zum Gegenstand seiner Kontrolle zu machen. Der Verfasser argumentiert vielseitig, dass die Verfassungsbeschwerde von grosser Bedeutung ist. Im Zusammenhang mit den Organstreitigkeiten zeigt der Verfasser, dass das Bundesverfassungsgericht bei umstrittenen Gesetzgebungsvorhaben präventiv nicht entscheidet und dass seine Senate als Instrument der politischen Auseinandersetzung nicht dienen. Er gleicht die Organstreitigkeiten dem Verfassungsbeschwerdeverfahren; die politischen Parteien machen ihre verfassungsrechtliche Position der Mitwirkung an der politischen Willensbildung durch Organstreit geltend. Eine gesellschaftliche Kraft wendet sieh hier gegen einen. Akt der öffentlichen Gewalt. Die Kooperation von Verfassungsgerichtsbarkeit mit parlamentarischer-demokratischer Legitimation aller Staatsgewalt ist nicht eindeutig. Es gibt hier Gefährdungen und Konfliktfelder. In diesem Bereich analysiert der Verfasser die neue Frontstellung gegen den Gesetzgeber. Er erwägt, ob und inwiefern dazu die Integration der Verfassungsgerichtsbarkeit ins Justizsystem führt. Von grosser Bedeutung ist die verfassungskonforme Auslegung. Als besonders wichtig hält der Verfasser auch die Verfassungswidrig-Erklärung ohne Nichtigerklärung, Er sieht hier ein Symptom für den Anspruch des Bundesverfassungsgerichts auf nicht für Gericht begründetes Gewicht. Im Bereich der abstrakten Kontrolle ist der Widerspruch der Stimmen gegen diese Kontrolle selbstverständlich. Diese Funktion weitet so stark aus, dass das Vertrauen in die Neutralität des Verfassungsgerichts dadurch gefährdet wird. In den letzten Jahren ist eine Zunahme der Organstreitigkeiten zu beobachten. Der problematichste Streit war hier der um die Auflösung des 9. Bundestags. Der Verfasser analysiert das Urteil des Bundesverfassungsgerichts dazu, besonders die Befugnis zur Konkretisierung von Bundesverfassungsrecht.
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    Polska reforma gospodarcza po czterech latach a kryteria oceny systemów ekonomicznych
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Wilczyński, Wacław
    After the four years in the sate of implementation off the reform is insuffiicieint. New mechanisms of the economic system are still not working. The anticipated economic revival has not occlrred. Poor progress of the reform is effected mostly by the subjective factors, particularly by the insufficient reconstruction of the regulating sphere of the economy. Central economic organs as well as their real functions have not been considerably transformed. There is a tendency observed to reinterpret the reform into the instrumental direction, limiting transformation of economic relations. The lack of qualitative breakthrough in the economic system is clearly visible in the sphere of money and market relations. In the result of continuing traditional pricing policies and the so-called soft financing of wages, the producer market prevails. At the same time no situation is created to create a surplus of effect over expenditures. A clear articulation of the reform targets and a consequent and stable policy of transforming economic relations and bringing into operation mechanisms of economic constraint are necessary to assure the success to the reform. It calls for transforming the State from the director into the sovereign of the national economy and departing from identifying state-controlled economy with the economy of centralistic system of managment.
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    Kryteria i sposoby oceny pracy w mechanizmach regulacji płac
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Jarmołowicz, Wacław
    The basic question on which the author atempts to provide an answer are: what exactly is the subject of the work evaluation, what are its essential criteria end means, and particularly — what is the use of these evaluations in the centralized and decentralized types of the wage regulation mechanisms. As distinct from the traditional approach to the problems of work evaluation (accounting mostly for its „technical and account" aspect) the author attempts at discussing methods and tools of the evaluation from the viewpoint of the system of functioning of the national economy. Particularly, it is proved that the criteria, methods and tools of work evaluation are the essential element of mechanisms of wage regulation as the grounds for the decisionmaking on the level, relations and structure of wages. Reconstructing thus and analysing those mechanisms and the role played in them by the methods and tools of evaluating and regulating work, both conditioning of the system and certain effectiveness effects are indicated on the example of the Polish economy. First of all, the basic contradictions and limitations in accounting for work effectiveness as the basis for the decisionmaking in wages in the central regulation mechanism are presented. These are mainly resulted by reducing the notion of effectiveness to the evaluation of and measurements of work expenditures, particularly of individual labor. The necessity of departing from that „expenditure" handling of work evaluation related to shifting the stress in the evaluation to its results, including the collective results, and the consequent new approach to the criteria and means of evaluation, are in the author's opinion, the prerequisites to more rational and answering needs of the reform, wage policy.
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    Przedsiębiorstwo handlu zagranicznego w reformowanej gospodarce
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Schroeder, Jerzy
    The article attempts at defining a position and a role of a foreign trade enterprise in the conditions of implementation of the economic reform. The analysis of the previous practical solutions and theoretical assumptions leads to advancing a thesis that both the position and the role of these enterprises in the Polish economy are decided by the following factors: means of realization the Stahte monopoly of a foreign trade, and the related salutions in the sphere of organizing the foreign trade machinery, the existing system of managing the State economy and targets ow the foreign trade in the State economy. The author analyses and evaluates those factors and their influence on the conception of position and role of those enterprises in the economic system adopted on a. given stage of the State's economic development. A problem of position and role of those enterprises to be played in the future after implementation of the reform is also analysed.
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    Narzędzia racjonalnego gospodarowania przestrzenią w działalności rad narodowych. Zarys rozwiązania
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Trojanek, Maria
    Presently binding legal acts tats The Protection and Forming of the Environment Act, The Peopless Councils and Territorial Self-Government System Act, The Town and Country Planning Act, create formal grounds for people's councils independent decisions in masters concerning theiir regions. This calls among others, for a different approach in cases of managing of town and country and in town and country. The article criticises the previous objective treatment of town and country, preseoting at the same time the circumstances which conditioned the said approach and its effects in the environment. A large body of the discussion is devoted to the presentation of a certain calculus approach facilitating the local authorities to: 1) follow the changes in the environmental resources resulted by adopting a certain variant of development to realization. 2) present tasks to be taken on, in order to secure a harmonious development of a given unit. The sequence of acts to be followed in that approach can be treated as one of possible tools facilitating a selection of those programs of development which would account for properties and , resources of a given area as well as for the criteria of rationality in the aspect of the society.
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    O przyczynach i instrumentach ekologizacji działań ekonomicznych
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Kośmicki, Eugeniusz
    Problems of market mechanisms concern also ecologization of economic activity. Previously adopted administrative measures (in the forms of orders and interdictions) proved to be very ineffective. On the other hand, economic mechanisms used in the market economy countries are more efficient than pure administrative measures. In case of a lack of general economic and legal framework of ecologization, the market mechanism contrubutes to the degradation of environment. The elements of enviroment, defined as the so-called „free-goods", have no price whatsover and that leads to their wasting. The economically effective ecologization is possible only when there is an uncontrolled (by enterprises) pressure on the improvement of economic effectiveness. The ecologization costs cannot be then imposed over consumers. The State has many instruments to affect the ecologization of economy at its disposal. Fees have the most typical market character, while environmental norms are of administrative nature. Subsidies of various kinds, supporting research on new technologies are also treated as economic instruments of ecologization, costs of the ecologization are borne then by the whole society. Ecologization creates the largest burden for small and medium enterprises. State preferred environmental norms and subsidies are usually advantageous precisely for enterprises. The effective ecologization in the socialist States requires proper- forming of economic and legal relations and a definite general effectiveness of the economic system. The efficient ecologization is related to maikinig the very enterprises interested in ecological problems, what is possible by means of including ecological tasks to the activity of enterprises, along with productional targets.
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    Próba rejonizacji procesów urbanizacji wsi w Polsce
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Czyżewski, Andrzej
    The elaboration, consists of the three parts. The first one is treated as the discussion of the motion of country urbanization. Attempts at finding a definition are presented, these were elaborated by sociologists, geographer and economists. Presented positions are in fact rather varid, yet they agree as to the fact that the urbanization of country consists of transformations aiming at equalizing disproportions in conditions and life style between town and country. The differences consist in the way of treating urbanization phenomena, differing in heuristic value of the proposed solutions. The second part of the deliberations presents a construction of indices of country urbanization processes, adopted on the basis of factor analysis. The index of productional activity of individual farms (F1) is calculated and the one of proffessional urbanization of the country population (F2). In the construction of the first, variables informing about productional effects prevail, while in the latter, it is the features describing a structure of sources of maintenance of rural population and the frequency of contacts with a town. The method used facilitated a presentation of differentiated level of the productive activity of individual farms and the level of professional urbanization in the macro-regional cross-section. It can become a point of depatrure to regionalize the country urbanization processes in Poland, presented in the third part of the article. The analysis results facilitated formulation of delimitional criterion which is the level substitution of agricultural activity in the county by non agricultural activity. This becomes grounds to differentiate three regions in Poland: they approximate a parallel shape. The first one contains voivodships with a high substitution of agricultural productive activity with the non agricultural one. The second region of urbanization exibits the medium level of the discussed criteria, both levels of productive activity and professional urbanization are close to each other. The third region consists of all other voivodships i.e. those exibiting a lower then medium level of substitution of the discussed criteria.
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    Statystyczna analiza porównawcza w badaniach zjawisk ekonomiczno-rolniczych w województwach
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Nowak, Edward
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    Przestrzenne zróżnicowanie usług gastronomicznych w Polsce
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Sala, Józef
    The post-war period brought about a rapid development of both open and closed catering in many countries. Presently, in the developed countries it became an important link in the complex of provision business and tourism. In Poland, in the last 40 years that development was poor. That is why synchronizing spatial structures of supply and demand for catering services becomes an important task. On the basis an analysis produced in the article, with the use of taxonomic methods, it has (to be stated that the largest disparities in the spatial structures of demand and supply for catering services are observed in the city agglomerations and in the area of Central-Eastern Poland. It results in determined effects for the population. First of all it can influence differentiation of living standard and negatively affects the level of nourishment of the society. Therefore, the ascertained deviations in development must be eliminated in the course of the implemented economic reform.
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    Kształtowanie sieci usługowej w nowym osiedlu mieszkaniowym
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Pilarczyk, Bogna
    The following were considered as the essential elements for programming a chain of services in a new housing estate: the spatial structure of the neighbourhood, housing construction, communication structure, population, effective demand of it and the economic effectiveness of that chain in particular. The influence of those factors for the dimensions, structure and lay-out of the chain of services is rather varied, the factor interrelations can basically bar any attempts at calculating the level of their weight. Housing resources are closely related to the number of people awaiting for their apartments, the latter value represents given needs (at fixed incomes and prices) to be fulfilled by the chain of stores, craft workshops and catering units. There is also a relation observed between demand for locally performed services exhibited by the neighbourhood population and the real transportation accessibility, which can be measured by the existence of pedestrian walks within the housing estate area, and of the external relations of the neighbourhood with other estates and the city's downtown. It can be inferred from the discussion that the economic effectiveness must be accounted for in the programing a chain of services. Knowledge of the said factors forming the chain facilitates is solving problems of general and specific location in that area. The attention is focused on the proposals to balance the demand for the chain of services with the possibilities of satisfying it as well as on the selection of methods of a correct lay-out of service objects in the area.
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    Od ekologii i neo-ekologii człowieka do sozoekologii społecznej
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Wierzbicki, Zbigniew
    The author departs from the assumption that there is no clear cut borderline between a human constitution and a natural environment, as these two consist the interrelated system, interacting in the respect of conditioning. Analysing the state of natural environment in Poland, the author is searching for the explication of the ecological crisis not only in the sphere of industrialization and urbanization processes in the country and applying no protective installations, but he is also offering reasons for it, of a social nature: the lack of tripartite division of powers (according to the Montesqueiean theory), and the lack of equilibrium of social powers which is practically manifested by the domination of a techno-bureaucratic lobby over other socio-professional structures as well the supremacy of the planning and executive power over the other ones. The traditional ecology and neo-ecology of a man are not relevant to the existing situation. New ideas and concepts have appeared (ecoarchitecture, eco- -pedagogics, eco-economics), as well as the desire, and sometimes the necessity to shape the environment directly (sociospatial planning) with the respect to problems of natural environment protection (sozo-ecology, or sozo-physiotactics; a Gr. word „sozo-" protect, keep alive) to save a man and his civilization. It is the author's suggestion to supplement the ecology of man by introducing a planning to the cultural order, to prevent degrading of nature by means of regulating economic competition in the biotic order (on a local level). Activity of man aiding the nature would be an ideal solution, or at least the activity not destructing it. The author precises the differences between the old ecology and new-ecology of man and social sozo-ecology, mentioning the following in the new concept: a wider understanding of the natural environment (also woods, waters wasteland, and monuments of the material culture independently of their economic use); space has a „continous" value irrespective of its economic use, evaluating it according to sozo-ecological or (sociological criteria (as an element of the non-spatial system of values- F. Znaniecki); particular importance is attributed here to rural and protected areas (e.g. national parks, wasteland) as to the „supplier" of ecological resources to the areas exhibiting their deficit, and as a condition of the ecological balance of a region or country. A notion of „subsocial relations" is reintroduced in sozo-ecology, to define solely interactions between men and nature.
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    Kształtowanie motywacji w środowisku pracy
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986) Penc, Józef
    A juncture of interrelated motives decides always about the behavior of people in their working environment, their professional activity and the tendency to the effective performance, this forms their motivation understood as a process governing the selection made by an individual from among various forms of activity aiming at the achievement of the goals resulted from the values appreciated by the said individual. It is precisely that motivation nursing presently the fondest hopes. Filling it with the new contents and functions has to be the key to solving various problems brought about by the economic reform: it is expected to activate human attitudes, their efficiency and effectiveness, support initiative and ingeniousness of employees. Therefore enterprises are seeking those solutions which would be simple and at the same time stimulating to the efficient work. Those solutions concern mostly the material motivation i.e. improvements in wage policies and comprise such wage issues as: methods of qualifying and regulating labor,, forming the internal structure of wages, awarding wage promotions, and the selection of rational wage forms, relating the results of work evaluation to wages and conditions of their increase. These are the trends in enterprises, but no satisfactory results are encountered. Proper control of motivation calls for considering not only reactions of employees for pecuniary values and for improving wage policies and technics, but also for under taking paralel activities, aiding stimulation of the will to work and facilitating the use of human talents and resources, i.e. having regard for the conditions in which people live and work, which affect them creating given motivational situations (encouraging or discouraging). As regards an enterprise the said activities are: endowing work contents with intellectual values and autonomous functions, improving conditions of the material working environment, eliminating their burden and generating favorable psycho-social climate effecting a high culture of cooperation and mutual consensus among the people.
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    Przegląd piśmiennictwa RPEiS 48(2), 1986
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1986)
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego