Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny, 1990, nr 3-4


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    Spis treści RPEiS 52(3-4), 1990
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990)
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    Problematyka finansów samorządu terytorialnego w Polsce
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Komar, Andrzej
    The reinstatement of territorial self-government in Poland makes it necessary to solve some basic problems in the area of finances. Three of such problems have been dealt with in this article. Firstly, the author outlines the conception of a system of financing the self-government. Secondly, he presents the solutions in the area of financing adopted in the Act on Territorial Government. Thirdly, he evaluates those solutions. Unfortunately, the solutions contained in the said Act are not satisfactory, for they are deprived of a necessary context. In particular, the sources, of budget revenues of self-government are limited what may negatively affect the self- -government's capacity to carry out its tasks. Besides, the Act bears the marks of legislative haste. Therefore, the article points to the urgent need of amending the statutory provisions in the section regulating the finances of self-government. However, the legislative process should be preceded by the formulation of the conception of local finances, compatible with the European standards. The article presents such a conception and suggests ways of its inclusion into legislation.
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    Finansowoprawne podstawy inwestycji zagranicznych w Polsce
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Małecki, Jerzy
    Polish economy requires to be restructured in the direction of the market system of highly developed countries. One of the steps along this way is a radical change of Polish financial legislation. A successful implementation of the programme of economic and legal reform would make Poland more attractive for foreign investors. At present a legal framework for foreign entreprises and foreign investment are the Acts of 1982 and 1988. Foreign units are protected from unfavourable changes in the spheres of income tax, transfer of profits and nationalization by guarantee clauses. The article presents legal-financial constructions in the field of foreign investment (taxation, customs, currency and credit regulations) and comments on the future direction of changes.
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    Zasada zdolności płatniczej podatnika
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Gomułowicz, Andrzej
    One of more important problems dealt with by the theory of taxation is the differentiation of tax burden according to the paying capacity of a taxpayer. Theoretical considerations concerning that problem may lead to practical results. The theory of taxation, however, should not be treated as a science whose task is to formulate practical advice. It is the tax praxis, supported by the theory, that should construct the tax system, along the principle of tax solvency of a taxpayer. In the adjustment of taxation to the tax solvency of a taxpayer of great significance is the adequate determination of the tax assessment basis and the choice of the type of a tax rate. The tax assessment basis indicate the level of tax a taxpayer may pay, while tax rates indicate the level of tax a taxpayer should pay. A tax rate determines the degree to which the increase of the tax assessment basis will be burdened and determines the limits of such a burden. The most adequate is a progressive tax rate. Of course, it is difficult to adjust the level of taxation to the tax solvency of a taxpayer by means of progressive tax rates only. There is no rule which would make it possible to determine a just level of such rates. Besides, its is also important to levy the taxes only in connection with such circumstances which actually reflect the solvency of a taxpayer. Non-fiscal aims of taxes have negative effects on tax solvency, for the attainment of such aims is the factor by means of which the legislator determines legal criteria of differentiating the tax burden.
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    Umowy o udostępnienie programów komputerowych w wybranych systemach prawnych
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Nowicka, Aurelia
    The article discusses the contracts for the use of computer programmes. The author presents basic forms of contracts and typical elements of their contents. The ba is of her presentation are the legal systems of the USA, Great Britain and the Federal Republic of Germany. In the first part of her article, the author presents the object and types of contracts (custom software contracts, package software contracts, mass marketed software contracts, especially shrink-wrap agreements). A basic contractual form of offering software is licence agreement. The author pays special attention to form contracts developed by the As ociation of Data Processing Service Organization. In the second part of her article the author discursses the legal status of computer programmes. In recent years, a prevailing form of legal protection is copyright law, accompanied by patent law and know-how protection within the trade secret law. The author also pre ents the position of Polish legal doctrine on the protection of computer programmes and analyses the premises of the draft of the Poli h copyright law, which is to include computer programmes under its protection. The third part of the article contains the analysis of typical elements of the contracts for the use of computer programmes (the scope of the licence, the character of the licence, intellectual property rights, licencee's rights to copying, alterations, the access to source code, the use of improved programmes, protection of secrecy, licence fees, legal and technical guarantees for the licensor, liability and the causes and consequences of expiration of a contract). Special attention is paid to the stipulations which may be of restrictive character for the buyer, limiting his or her rights to use the programme (e.g. no access to source code, the interdiction to make copies, especially back-up copies, the interdiction to do reverse engineering, etc.). Next, the author analyses a special form of distribution of mass marketed software (shrink-wrap licence). The admissibility of such contracts has recently been questioned, for they limit excessively the rights of the buyer protected by copyright law and they are an example of an abuse of economic power by the seller. The last part of the article contains the remarks on the possibilities of applying foreign solutions in Polish software trade (domestic and international). In this context the author points to the need of seeking the solutions which could best protect the interests of Polish software importers.
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    Przystąpienie Stanów Zjednoczonych do Konwencji Berneńskiej
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Kępiński, Marian
    The author presents main features of the Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1989. That law changed substantially the provisions of the Copyright Act of 1976, in particular those which dealt with formalities. Remaining formalities such as copyright notice, copyright registration and deposit of the work with the Copyright Office are, generally speaking, of permissive nature i.e. they are not conditions of copyright protection. However, there are aways advantages of complying with these formalities. The second area (where the American concept of copyright needed evaluation in connection with U.S. accession to the Berne Convention was the protection of moral rights. American legislator adopted the minimalistic approach to that issue. It meant that no moral rights provisions were needed in the Copyright Act because general copyright laws and other statutes provided its effective protection. That view is somewhat confusing to the continental lawyer. The author reviews the protection of the right to paternity and the right to integrity and presents attemps to amend the Copyright Act by senator Kennedy and representative Kastenmaier who both intended to introduce the protection of moral rights for the authors of visual works. The article ends with the chronology of Polish-American copyright relations. These may be subdivided into three periods: 1) from Febr. 16, 1977 to March 9, 1977 — when mutual protection of works was based on formal reciprocity; 2) from March 9, 1977 to March 1s t, 1989 — when protection was based on the UCC; 3) from March 1s t, 1989 — when protection is based on the Berne Convention.
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    Próba analizy prawnokarnej konstrukcji umyślności
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Rodzynkiewicz, Mateusz
    The article indicates incoherencies in Art. 7 § 1 of the Penal Code of 1969. The notion of intentionality de lege lata goes beyond linguistic intuitions and is of eclectic character. Discussing the form of intentionality known as dolus eventualis the author supports W. Wolter's theory of neutrality, stressing its conclusion according to which dolus eventualis is only a fiction of intention. The author critically presents a new approach to intentionality put forth by K. Buchała and A. Zoll. Analizing the question of „dolus directus" the author indicates that also in that case lawyers create the fiction of intentionality. Namely, they refer „wanting" to the necessary side-effect of the perpetrator's behaviour. There is an error in this reasoning, for one may „want" something that is the aim of one's behaviour or a means necessary to the attainment of that aim, and not something that is „disconnected" from that aim, being only a side-effect of one's behaviour. The author assumes that in the latter case there is no intention but the neutrality of will related to the side-effect understood by the perpetrator as necessary, just as in the case of dolus eventualis in W. Wolter's conception where the neutrality of will is referred to the side-effect understood by the perpetrator as possible. In the last part of the article the author formulates two versions of defining intentionality de lege ferenda. The first refers to the contents of Art. 7 § 1 of the Penal Code, the second to the proposal put forth by K. Buchała and A. Zoll. Finally the author points to the methodological advantages of his formula in the context of so-called directional offences.
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    Karalne postacie przygotowania przestępstwa w polskim prawie karnym
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Kunze, Eugeniusz
    Polish Penal Code considers crime preparation to be a form of a criminal offence. Art. 14 § 1 gives basis for distinguishing five detailed forms of crime preparation, and one general clause which states as follows: „or takes up other similar activities". The five detailed forms include the following: purchase of means, adjustement of means, gathering information, drawing up a plan of action, and making contact with another person. The preparation of a crime is punishable only in the cases stated in the Penal Code and concerns those offences which threaten collective goods important for social relations. Crime preparations is not punishable when the offender has voluntarily given it up.
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    Nowe prawo o pieczy nad pełnoletnim
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Schlüter, Wilfried; Liedmeier, Norbert
    The law on custody over adults in force in the Federal Republic of Germany is the expression of the XIXth c. ideas. Presently, legislative works on the amendment of the said law are in progress. They aim at taking into account to a greater extent a humane aspect and at making legal provisions more flexible, thus making it possible to adjust legal procedure and a court decree to an individualised situation of a handicapped person.
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    Trzecia generacja praw człowieka jako strategia urzeczywistniania praw politycznych i społecznych
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Riedel, Eibe
    Im vorliegenden Artikel werden die Menschenrechte der dritten Dimension als Strategie zur Verwirklichung der politischen und sozialen Menschenrechte anlysiert. Der Verfasser stellt fest, dass den Menschenrechten verschiedene Dimensionen innewohnen. In historischer Perspektive lässt sich zweifellos auch ein dreidimensionales Grobraster feststellen, das die Wandlungen der Menschenrechtsforderugen von der innerstaatlichen zur völkerrechtlichen Schutzebene nachzeichnet. Danach sind Rechte der ersten, zweiten und dritten Dimension zu unterscheiden: Rechte der ersten Dimension bezeichnen die liberalen Abwehrrechte, die klassischen staatsbürgerlichen und politischen Freiheitsrechte. Rechte der zweiten Dimension markieren wirtschaftliche, soziale und kulturelle Rechte, während Rechte der dritten Dimension umfassendere Rechte wie das auf eine lebenswerte Umwelt, das Recht auf Entwicklung, das gemeinsame Menschheitserbe, das Recht auf Frieden sowie das Recht auf Selbstbestimmung, Partizipation und Kommunikation ansprechen. Der Verfasser analysiert weitgehend vor allem den Inhalt des Rechts auf Frieden, Entwicklung und gemeinsame Menscheitserbe. Seines Erachtens eine besondere Rolle spielt dabei das Recht auf Entwicklung, das er als „Syntheserecht" der dritten Dimension bezeichnet. Im Artikel wird auch das Problem der Rechtsqualität der Drittdimensionsrechte erörtert. Der Verfasser skizziert acht verschiedene juristische Begründungsversuche, die im völkerrechtlichen Schrifttum angeboten werden. Ihnen allen gemeinsam ist das Bestreben, ein Recht auf Entwicklung in den bestehenden Kanon geschriebener und ungeschriebener Menschenrechte einzufügen, bei gleichzeitiger Betonung seines eigenständigen, synthetischen Charakters. Dabei verbindet man die Drittdimensionsrechte mit den sog. Menschenrechtsstandarden. Der Verfassers Meinung nach sind alle Menschenrechte zukunftsgerichtet und öffnen Perspektiven, die einen Bewusstseinswandel einleiten können. Nichts spricht dagegen, dies auch den Drittdimensionsrechten — und allen voran dem Recht auf Entwicklung — zuzusprechen. Den westlichen Staaten, die den Forderungen der Dritten Welt eher skeptisch gegenüberstehen, sei gesagt, dass die lange Tradition der Menschenrechte immer eine entbehrungsreiche und zunächst nur ethische Forderungen als Fanale setzende geistige Kraft darstellte, die Jahrhunderte brauchte, um Allgemeingut zu werden. Dies galt für die staatsbürgerlichen und politischen Rechte der ersten Dimension und wurde in den Sozialrechten der zweiten Dimension nachvollzogen — warum sollten die Drittdimensionsrechte nicht einen ähnlichen Verlauf nehmen?
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    Inflacja jako narzędzie regulacji współczesnej gospodarki rynkowej
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Barczyk, Ryszard; Kowalczyk, Zygmunt
    Inflation is a phenomenon inherent in any system operating in conditions of market economy. It is considered a necessary evil; thus, economic subjects try to adjust their behavior and activities to inflation or even use it to their advantage. The purpose of the article is to analyse the consequences of inflation in the sphere of economic growth and in the national product distribution in highly developed market economies. At the same time, the analyses are the basis for investigating to what extent the efects of inflation and the deflationary activities may be utilized as a tool of regulating a modern market economy as a whole. The budgetary, monetary and credit policy realized in conditions of inflation is a factor limiting the dynamics of economic growth. The processes of the prise rise are autonomous with respect to the increase in the unemployment rate. In turn, in the sphere of redistribution of national product they generally inflict the decrease in real income from work or property. Similar negative consequences are caused by inflation in the sphere of balance of trade and payments (decreased price competitiveness of goods and services). In highly developed countries operating in conditions of market economy inflation may to some extent be utilized as a tool regulating those systems. However, the consequences of such operations are negative and the possibilities of using inflation to attain positive results in the economic process are insignificant.
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    Totalno-statystyczna i interwencjonalistyczna regulacja systemu gospodarczego
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Jantoń-Drozdowska, Elżbieta; Paszke, Henryk
    The paper poses the problem of limits of the economic functions of the state. Its aim is: 1) to prove that total-state regulation of the economic system leads inevitably to desintegration and crash of economy; 2) to show that a certain degree of putting economy under state control is a condition for the development of the economic system. A high degree of concentration of power and a limited scale of economic liberty is characteristic of the total-state system. Its result is a low ability to control the economic development. Any economic growth later results in overstepping the resource limits. Thus the system must incessantly gain external resources. Lack of external resources extorts a fundamental reform of the economic system — deconcentration of power and widening of economic liberty. The present market-state system is different from a traditional model of state economic integration. The state is now one of the subjects of economic structure. 11*
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    Agraryzm w teorii i praktyce
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Romanow, Zbigniew
    Agrarism, as a socio-economic doctrine, develops in countries with a prevailing agricultural sector, especially in years 1918 - 1939. The changes connected with land reforms and the transition of European agriculture into capitalism deepened the disproportions between towns and countryside. Therefore, among the activists of agrarian movements in agricultural countries appeared the view stressing the necessity of socio-economic changes leading to the elevation of the significance of agriculture in the nation's life. The beginnings of agrarism on Polish territory appeared early in the XXc. Taking as an example agricultural relations in Denmark and Czechoslovakia, Polish agrarians put forth the postulate of subordinating the policy of the State to the overall development of farms. An attachement to the principles of market economy and a so-called right of deconcentration made agrarians consider agriculture to be the basic branch of national economy. In turn, they were usually against the development of industry not connected with agriculture. Their postulates included the restriction of big land ownership and the parcellation of land among peasants capable of efficient farming based on family labour resources. The agrarian movement, prosecuted during the four decades of „socialist construction" in Poland, has not enirely lost its significance. Some deformations of views from that period are presently corrected under changed political, social and economic conditions. The replacement of the directival-distributive system with the market system in difficult conditions of demand imbalance makes it necessary to exert the economic pressure with respect to the economy as a whole. The point is to stipulate the growth of the most efficient sectors of economy. The adoption of the principles of free competition accompanied by simultaneous demands for a preferential treatment of agriculture together with a far-reaching interventionist policy of the State is determined by the present character of the market-place and the direction of changes. State interventionism is to correct, not to replace, the market mechanism. A precondition for efficient regulation of economic processes is the creation of market economy. State interventionism must not be a mere social aid for all farmers. It should aim at securing the profitability of agricultural activity only for efficient farms.
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    Relacje makrostrukturalne w gospodarce żywnościoiwej
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Czyżewski, Andrzej; Helak, Krzysztof
    The authors present — on the basis of the tripartite production structure of the food economy (I. means of production for agriculture, II. agricultural production, III. food-processing industry) — the internal dynamics of the transfer of material goods between the spheres of the food complex, its connection with the surroundings, and the formation of more important macrostructural relations. The considerations aim at the research for the optimum relations of agriculture with the other segments of the food economy complex (FEC). The results enable them to formulate the following conclusions about the participation of FEC in the creation and distribution of accumulation: 1. In the sphere I the changes took the form of increased technical modernization and innovativeness accompanied by a simultaneous decrease of import. At the same time infrastructural services in that sphere remained underdeveloped. 2. During the analysed period (1977 -1987), and especially in the end of the 1980s, a relative improvement in the amount of industrial means of production for agriculture from spheres I and II was noted. 3. The amount of industrial means of production for sphere III, including imported goods, remained relatively low, though the improvement noted in years 1986 -1987 may signify a progress in the modernization of production basis of food-processing industry. Generally speaking, in the analysed period positive changes in the structure of the FEC took place. This tendency is more conspicuous in the second half of the 1980s. It manifested itself through a quickened pace of the industrialization of agriculture and the beginnings of the modernization of food-processing industry. These processes are not accompanied by the progress in the efficiency of agricultural production. The efficiency of that production relatively decreased; it could be interpreted in terms of differences as to developmental tendencies between the agricultural sector and other sectors of the FEC. This situation is clearly detrimental for the integration processes within the FEC and hinders the economic progress in relations between agriculture and non-agricultural surrounding.
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    Pareto jako krytyk Marksa i ideologicznego pojmowania społeczeństwa
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Kozyr-Kowalski, Stanisław
    The article points to the significance of Pareto's conception of ideology and his distinction between the two interpretations of historical materialism (populaire — savante) for modern social sciencies. The author questions the view that Pareto constructs a juxtaposition of theory of classes and class struggle with the theory of elites and the law of the circulation of elites. The author indicates that Pareto's theory of elites assumes the defence of Marx's theory of classes and his theory of class struggle against recurrent criticism, such as: glorification of violence in social life, discrepancy between the class struggle and humanism, law, religious values. Pareto's conception of class struggle, his distinction between „la violence" and „la force" shed new light on his theory of elites. Pareto's theory of elites may than be rid of naturalistic determinism, ahistorism and antidemocratism and may no longer be treated as the expression of the attitude of contempt towards the masses. It reveals its antielitist consequences and is in agreement with liberal values accepted by Pareto.
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    Ośrodki i instytucie socjologii polskiej to pierwszych latach po drugiej wojnie światowej
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Ruszczewska, Violetta
    The author presents a fragment of the history of Polish sociology. She indicates that the sociological centres spread dynamically in the years following the emergence of a new socio-political system in Poland. The first sociological institution in the post-war period was the Polish Sociological Institute, opened in Lublin in 1944. Later the Institute was moved to Łódź The latter town may be considered a center of Polish sociology in the early post-war period also because many famous Polish sociologists (Chałasiński, Szczepański, Ossowski) carried out their scientific work there. Łódź was also the place where the only Polish sociological periodical of these years — „Przegląd Socjologiczny" (Sociological Review) — was published after Florian Znaniecki's emigration to the USA, Józef Chałasiński became the most distinguished Polish sociologist. Thanks to his scientific activity „Znaniecki school" was kept alive in Poland. Later, sociology found its place at the universities in Łódź, Lublin, Warsaw, Poznań and Wrocław. Besides, many other sociological institutions were established.
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    Socjologia rodziny w Polsce
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Tyszka, Zbigniew
    The article contains the characterization of the development of the sociology of family in Poland, determines its basic notions and problems and presents main directions of research and its methodology. The author characterises the all-Polish programme of research on family, includes a summary of results obtained by Polish sociologists and presents main theses concerning the features of contemporary Polish families, their interactions with outside structures, the directions of their transformations and their internal processes. The dynamic development of the sociological research on family initiated in the end of the 1950s, has provided a detailed analysis of modern Polish families and offered valuable insights into the mechanisms of their evolution and the directions of changes.
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    Kultura przedsiębiorstwa a zachowania innowacyjne
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Penc, Józef
    In his article the author discusses various aspects of innovative behaviour in an enterprise. He presents conditions favourable and detrimental to that process. A key to the succes of innovative behaviour in an enterprise in the creation of so-called innovative culture. In such culture, the strategy, organizational structure, economic processes and instruments, as well as the hierarchy of values, norms and behaviours, especially those of the management, are directed towards the support and activization of innovativeness. The formation of such culture is facilitated by certain principles, such as: accepting the necessity of innovations and making them the basis for the enterprise's existence, delimiting the areas of possible innovation, supporting creative employees and providing them with suitable technical, financial and organizational conditions, creating favourable climate for innovations, breaking down bureaucratic obstacles to their implementation, etc.
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    Socjoekonomiczne aspekty zatrudnienia inżynierów w zakładzie pracy
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990) Sikora, Jan
    The article constitutes a part of a wider research project aimed at investigating social conditions of engineers' activity in industrial enterprises („Work and Its Conditions", CPBP 09.09.10). The article characterizes engineers as a socio-professional category, of great significance at a workplace. The author points out to a socio-economic aspect of employing engineers. This aspect is underestimated in social policy sensu largo, and especially in the employment policy. Here, there is need to perceive interdependencies between employment and motivation to work, employees' attitudes, socio-professional mobility, and their pre-retirement and retirement activity. The author also presents the outcome of empirical research on engineers' employment. Here, he comments on the level of their professional qualifications obtained in educational institutions, the engineers' adaptation at a workplace, their professional careers and activity, including their participation in innovative activity. In concluding remarks the author formulated some practical postulates concerning the policy of employing and educating engineers.
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    Przegląd piśmiennictwa RPEiS 52(3-4), 1990
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1990)
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego