ItemIntertekst w adaptacji filmowej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Hendrykowski, Marek; Adamczak, MarcinThere are problems with discussing and interpreting film adaptation in the socio-cultural framework that is used for the semiotic, structural and aesthetic analysis of text. Even cinema as art often gives in to habit of talking about film “oeuvres” attributed to or identified in terms of an “author” and author’s cinema. It may be misleading to give too much weight and attention to the concept of “fidelity” of film adaptation, and it may be better to look at both – adapted piece of literature and its screen adaptation - as variously connected texts of culture confronting each other and participating in specific discourse. Marek Hendrykowski’s paper raises these questions, examines theoretical background of adaptation as form of communication, and reflects on the modelling linguistic aspects of intertextual analyses of film adaptation as a form of cultural translation. ItemZmiany percepcji w wyniku oddziaływania nowych mediów i nowych modeli odbioru dzieła filmowego(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Mróz, Karolina; Adamczak, MarcinMedialized way of perceiving and continual stuffing of reality with moving images have substantial impact on viewer’s perception, and thus on the interpretation of cinematic work. We cannot create contemporary cinema without understanding changes that the film and audiovisual audiences currently undergo. Contemporary audience has become nomadic more now than ever, and the spectator takes part in a grand spectacle that shapes their identity. ItemThe (Restored) Practice of DEFA Co-productions with the “Normalized” Czechoslovak Film Studio in the 1970s(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Skopal, Pavel; Adamczak, MarcinAfter four co-productions which the East German and Czech studios made from 1957 to 1965, a five-year hiatus in DEFA-Barrandov co-productions took place. During the Czechoslovak New Wave era, the Czech filmmakers gave DEFA the cold shoulder. But the process of “normalisation” that took place after the August 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia put both the regimes and the film industry structures back in sync. While the end of independent production groups at DEFA and Barrandov damaged the creative environment and the quality of productions as a whole, it also had an unforeseeable effect: the revival of DEFA-Barrandov co-productions. On the German side, DEFA was interested in help from experienced practitioners, especially scriptwriters. On the Czech side, Barrandov´s filmmakers—now isolated from previous contact with western partners and under strict ideological control—strove to shape the DEFA projects they were offered according to their own criteria. There was thus a harmonization of goals and tools, which worked especially well in the sphere of children movies. This was not only because this type of production rarely crashed against divergent interpretations of the past by the two partners. There were two more important reasons as well: namely, that the dramaturge group for children’s movies was under looser ideological control by Barrandov management; and that the personal continuity with the pre-normalization era was stronger in this group than was the case for other groups. In the 1970s, both studios were motivated to find an effective mode of co-operation. ItemTradition and Modernization. Contemporary Hungarian Popular Cinema(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Varga, Balázs; Adamczak, MarcinThis article provides an overview of the recent trends and problems of Hungarian popular cinema with special regard to its cultural context outlining the process of recognition of popular cinema over the past twenty years in Hungary. In general Hungarian cinema is characterised by middle-range genres (dominantly comedy) and not by a large scope. This was the case in the 1930s and 1940s during the ’golden age’ of Hungarian comedies and popular cinema. And this typifies contemporary Hungarian popular cinema as well. However, the first decade after the political changes, the 1990s was characterised by a return to the tradition of the classical Hungarian comedies and only the 2000s brought the modernization of Hungarian popular cinema. ItemFilm production between “global” and “local”: insights from Bosna and Herzegovina(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Zajec, Špela; Adamczak, MarcinThis article deals with the mechanisms that affect film production in a society with radically shifting socio-political, economic and cultural conditions, in conflictual socio-political context in Bosnia and Herzegovina (further Bosnia or BiH). Its focus is on the mechanisms that support, manage, regulate, and control creativity in film production, how they shape the conditions in which the films get made. ItemMagic, emotions and film producers: unlocking the “black-box” of film production(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Ostrowska, Dorota; Adamczak, MarcinThe starting point in the article is production culture research. Dorota Ostrowska points that – contradictiory to promises – this approach still failed to provide analisis showing connection between production culture and textual characteristic of particular films. She mentions a few successful research endevours aimed to highlight that connection such as Wisconsin researches classical Hollywood cinema examining. Then Ostrowska proposes Flusser’s reflections and Action-Network Theory as promising theoretical backgrounds for production culture research. In conclusion she points also the persepctive originated in organisational science (subdivision of management studies) as a worthy tool to aplication in film production studies. This approaches is based on close examining of organization also in emotional and sensual terms. Ostrowska argues that emotional dimension of cinema, which is traditionally highlightened, could be also connected with production process and work of film crews. ItemŽelimir Žilnik and Eastern European independent cinema(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Mazierska, Ewa; Adamczak, MarcinIn my paper I will discuss the career of, a director born in 1942 in Nis in Yugoslavia, whose career, spanning over forty years and Yugoslavia, West Germany and Serbia, excellently illustrates the concepts of independent and transnational cinema and their interface. Žilnik’s career well illustrates the advantages and pitfalls of “independent filmmaking”, especially in the context of Eastern Europe. Hence, in my paper, I will use his case to examine this concept, drawing on Marx and Marxist thought, such as the critique of the “culture industry” by Horkheimer and Adorno and the concept of “critical media” by Christian Fuchs, and the history of Eastern Europe and its cinema, with its figure of “artist-dissident” and the specific case of Yugoslavia. My main point is that there is no “independent cinema” in absolute terms; cinema can only be independent from something, hence ‘independent cinema’ means different things in different cultural contexts. ItemPoznańskie Studio Filmów Animowanych w naszej narracji autorefleksyjnej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Sobolewska, Ewa; Zamojski, Jan; Adamczak, MarcinThe article relates to the studio both as an institution which has operated for three decades in different economic systems and various legal and organisations forms and as a creative team that has made films. The authors are: Ewa Sobolewska, a film producer associated with the Studio since the very beginning, its president for over ten years to date, and Jan Zamojski, an academic and script writer cooperating with the Studio as the author of adaptations and scripts for the films of the series Fourteen Tales from the Kingdom of Lailonia by Leszek Kołakowski. The article adopts a perspective of Production Culture studies initiated by J.T. Caldwell, with the use of the so-called emic perspective and a narrative interview. It is composed of a methodological part and authors’ comments to the questions they posed to each other. The narratives provide impressions from the period of developing the concept of the film and from the film set itself. They also contain more general self-reflections on the role of the script writer and the role of the producer in the creation of a film and reflections on the role of the Poznań Studio of Animation Films for the culture of film, including its local aspect. ItemProdukcja filmowa jako kultura. O pisarstwie filmowym Edwarda Zajička(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Hendrykowski, Marek; Adamczak, MarcinMarek Hendrykowski’s paper is devoted to the unique volume and its outstanding author. The book entitled “Beyond the Screen. Polish Cinematography 1896-2005” written by Edward Zajiček, Professor of Film School in Łódź, is the standard work in the field, unquestionably the most comprehensive and complete book on the history of Polish film production as a specific form of state and individual activity. This newly revised and expanded up-to-date monograph covering every important information about Polish film industry is the ideal introduction to everything the interested reader needs to know about it: from the fundamentals of film production to close-reading analyses of hundreds of classic examples. ItemNarracja i produkcja znaczeń w filmowym neomodernizmie(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Syska, Rafał; Adamczak, MarcinThis essay analyzes the narration strategies and methods of making meanings in neo-modernism movement. Filmmakers, who are its representatives, prefer the opposite model of cinematic communication which is commonly used in mainstream movies. The article begins with the definition of neo-modernism and description of key components that provide specific forms of narration and reception. Moreover, there were presented main terms related to the modernism and co-called slow cinema. In main fragments of the essay the author focused on some neo-modernist crime stories, which have been created through different, than in traditional cinema, methods of making meaning. Then, there were analyzed such elements of cinematic style as: use of off-screen space and non-conventional concepts of narrative ellipsis. ItemMiędzy poetyką kulturową a kulturą produkcji. Społeczny kontekst realizacji pierwszych filmów Andrzeja Wajdy(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Adamczak, Marcin; Adamczak, MarcinThe article is an attempt to examining again the three first movies of Andrzej Wajda: Generation, Canal and Diamonds and Ashes, regarding archival protocols and production issues more then stict artistic or auteur factors. The inspiration was both production culture persepctive and New Historicism of Stephen Greenblatt. The text show how many additional factors played decisive role in realising those classical movies and how much the movies were connected with plays for cultural power and dominance in those historical reality. In effect we can observe specific kind of dispersive authorship in which film authors hasn’t full control on the final effacts of the movie, for example its social impact and audience recepton. ItemStudia Filmowe „Wir” i „Kronika”, czyli kilka uwag na temat produkcji filmów dokumentalnych po 1989 roku(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Smoleń, Małgorzata; Adamczak, MarcinThe article provides an overview of a history of the two institutions involved in the production of documentary films - Film Studio "Kronika" and Film Studio "Wir". Their example can verify the general statements about the condition of Polish cinema after 1989. Discussion of the economic context and market regulation, about realities of teamwork, gives a more complete picture of how the producers of documentaries and newsreels were fighting to survive in a market of free media. The author analyzes and discusses legislation and financial reports, showing that the specific economic situation and sources of funding for "Kronika" and "Wir" had a direct impact on the quantity and quality of the completed documentary and archival notations. Reflections on the execution of particular projects, illustrate the survival strategy of institutions focused on production of non-commercial films. Discussion of the circumstances of the fall of the Film Studio "Wir" and the various stages of commercialization and privatization Film Studio "Kronika", leads to the conclusion that the Law on Cinematography in 2005 (giving revolutionary solution in production financing area for the Polish cinematography, introducing clear rules of the game between film producers), contains provisions unfavorable for institutions under the supervision of the state. ItemAutor filmowy według przepisów prawa w systemach droit d`auteur i copyright. Zarys problematyki(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Racięski, Bolesław; Adamczak, MarcinThe aim of the article is to outline the key issues surrounding legal notions of film authorship. For scholars interested in studying the process of production it is extremely important to analyze the status and scope of power of its participants as well as their position in the hierarchy – one of the main sources of priveleges is the fact of being recognized by the law as the author of the work produced. The article depicts the benefits of such situation, but its main aim is to descibe the legal rules of granting the status of the author. Outlined are the issues emerged from the two radically different legal system – european droit d`auteur tradition and american copyright. The first one honours the artists while the other focuses mostly on providing the certainty of the economics, so the actual authors of the work are not that important. The paper points to the fact that – especially in the case of american copyright – the actual (determined by law) situation of a creator may differ significantly from the character of their contribution to the process of producing a film. Analysis of the rules and principles of the law is essential to the understanding of the structural determinants of film production and deserves no less attention than social, political and economic factors. ItemRynek wideo w Polsce(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Fortuna, Grzegorz Jr; Adamczak, MarcinThe development of VHS market in Poland can be roughly divided into two main periods: first (1980-1988) is the one when that area of pop culture first came into existence and shaped, second (1988-1992) is the "video boom" era. In the years 1980-1988 the video market developed thanks to the cunningness and resourfulness of a large number of people who succumbed to the magic of that new medium. They worked almost entirely illegally because the market was not being regulated by any legal norms and the cassettes that were being produced were of a very low quality. In the years 1988-1992 the VHS market was on a very high demand. Significant piracy-limiting legal norms were introduced and professional production and distribution companies began to play a larger role than before. Renting VHSs and watching movies on one's own TV set became a massive phenomenon. The article is an attempt to tell the unknown story of video-cassettes in Poland – methods of their dissemination, mechanisms of VHS market and influence on Polish audience. ItemPolska produkcja filmowa po roku 2005 w perspektywie badań ilościowych(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Wróblewska, Anna; Adamczak, MarcinThe aim of the article is to present the contemporary Polish cinema as the integrated economic, cultural and legal system, to quote dispersed data and to present the data generated by the autohor, which is her own contribution into the development of the film science. Step by step, the author describes the process of achieving the results, problems with the methodology, the decisions about applying specified methods of calculating or presenting the data and the application of exceptions. The situation of the Polish cinema today is influenced and determined by the Law on Cinematography which was introduced in 2005. Its real effects were observed in 2007. The number of Polish feature films increased from 20-25 in 2000-2005 to 40-55 in 2007-2011. The auhor cites the metodology keys to estimate the number of the feature films in the defined year. ItemPraca w jednym ujęciu: historia aktywności zawodowych dwudziestego pierwszego wieku widziana okiem kamery(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Hirszfeld, Aleksandra; Hendrykowska, Małgorzata; Śliwińska, AnnaThe text deals with the topic of an international series of workshops initiated by Antje Ehman and Harun Farocki in 2011 under the auspices of the Goethe Institute and dedicated to the issue of labour. At present, ten workshops have been conducted of a planned fifteen (including Hanoi, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Cairo, Berlin, Tel Aviv, Geneva and Lisbon). Łódź, representing Poland, was the ninth-place city. The Polish version of the workshop was attended by visual artists from the National Film School. The results of the workshop will be exhibited at the October exposition in 2013 and the Łódź Museum of Art. The curators of the project are Aleksandra Jach and Joanna Sokołowska. ItemKolor w przestrzeni miejskiej „Siedem” Davida Finchera(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Choczaj, Małgorzata; Hendrykowska, Małgorzata; Śliwińska, AnnaThe city in Seven is full of dark and claustrophobic spaces, dominated by three colors: black, green and red. The significance of these colors is associated with sin: laziness (green), impurity (red) and pride (red, white). Desaturation of color and deep blacks throughout the film are the result of artistic treatments such as flyflashing and bleach-bypass. Color is complemented by light – sometimes minimal, other times quite blinding. The sound of thunder and rain complete the picture of the city as a place of moral decay, where two forces are fighting: light and darkness, purity and sin. ItemWielkomiejskie życie Drugiej Rzeczpospolitej w polskim filmie fabularnym okresu międzywojennego. Wstęp do tematu(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Otto, Wojciech; Hendrykowska, Małgorzata; Śliwińska, AnnaPolish feature films from the interwar period are to a great extent a reflection of the reality of that time. This can be seen mainly in the presentation of particular architectural objects and fashion from that time. The films are also a source of knowledge about the problems of the time: the impoverishment of the society, economic crisis, prostitution, etc. These pictures reflect reality, yet they are subject to numerous transformations, as the result of the conventions of the chosen genre. ItemReformator i statysta albo hulaka na metafizyczną skalę. O dwóch portretach cara Iwana Groźnego w kinie rosyjskim(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Szpulak, Andrzej; Hendrykowska, Małgorzata; Śliwińska, AnnaThe text is an attempt to define the specificity of portraits of the first Russian Tsar, Ivan the Terrible, in the field of historiography and culture, including popular culture. This characteristic is referred then to the analysis of two films – S. Eisenstein's Ivan the Terrible (1944-1946) and P. Lungin’s Tsar (2009). These films depict two different interpretations of the historical figure presented above all in Russian discourse. On the one hand (Eisenstein), Ivan is seen as a prominent politician engaged in a state-building strategy; on the other (Lungin), he is above all a crazy criminal. ItemHistoria zespołów filmowych z dzisiejszej perspektywy(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM w Poznaniu; Wydawnictwo PWSFTViT w Łodzi, 2013) Hendrykowski, Marek; Hendrykowska, Małgorzata; Śliwińska, AnnaDirectors were central and outstanding figures in the creation of the postwar Polish film industry from the 1940s to the late 1980s. Educating young filmmakers, the Film School in Łódź fostered a documentary-realist style of narrative filmmaking, seen in the work of such talents as Munk, Wajda, Morgenstern, Polański, Zanussi, Skolimowski, Marczewski and Kieślowski. Since 1990, the producer system has replaced the traditional structure of Polish cinema connected with the director’s pursuits and primacy, and well as film units. Marek Hendrykowski’s critical study describes this process, covering selected historical, political and cultural events. The author discusses various aspects of this evolution and the idea of the creative producer, redefining its role for generations to come.