ItemCurrent Challenges for the Application of the Rule of Law in European States, Poznań, 12–13 April, 2018(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Bainczyk, Magdalena ItemChallenges and Opportunities for the EU Digital Single Market, Brussels, 23 April, 2018(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Morozowski, Tomasz Item“To the Brink – and Back”: German Delegation at the 2018 Munich Security Conference, Munich 16–18 February, 2018(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Szubart, Kamil ItemBadanie polityki zagranicznej państwa, Edward Haliżak (ed.), Rambler, Warszawa 2018, 590 pp, ISBN: 978-83-62751-64-8.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Osiewicz, Przemysław ItemPolish Strategic Analyses – Review of 2017 Publications(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Wiśniewski, RafałThe text is a review of selected articles from leading Polish academic journals dealing with the topic of international security. It aims to present the most important topics of current debate taking place in Polish strategic studies. ItemBritish Scientific Journals in the Area of International Relations – 2017 Review(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Jędrowiak, PatrykThe text constitutes a review of articles published in 2017 on the pages of British academic journals dealing with international relations. The author has selected texts from issues of: “European Political Science Review”, “The British Journal of Politics and International Relations”, “Politics”, “Cambridge Review of International Relations” and “Political Studies.” The pre¬sented articles have been analyzed in the context of thematic groups such as: Brexit, elections, trust in politics, Middle East issues and others. ItemSIPRI Yearbook 2017(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Magiera, MaciejThe study is dedicated to the most important trends confirmed by current knowledge in the SIPRI Yearbook 2017. SIPRI annually issues a study which shows a comprehensive picture of the activity of international actors in terms of world military expenditure, international arms transfers, arms production, nuclear forces, armed conflicts and multilateral peace operations, as well as the promotion of security and development. ItemA Tale of Two Countries: Nat ion Building and Security Challenges in Myanmar and Indonesia(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Russell, MartinFor most of the former European colonies of South and Southeast Asia, the end of the Second World War was also the beginning of the end of colonial rule. With independence came the challenge of unifying disparate ethnic, religious and linguistic communities into cohesive nations - a challenge that some countries met more successfully than others. The price of failure could be high - hundreds of thousands were killed, and many millions displaced in 1947, as inter-communal conflicts tore British India apart. Indonesia declared independence in 1945 (a declaration not recognised by the country’s Dutch colonial rulers until 1949), while Burma (as Myanmar was then known) was granted independence by Britain in 1948. Both countries were able to avoid tragedies on the scale of the Indian Partition. Nevertheless, nation-building has been a difficult and as yet uncompleted process, the source of continuing challenges to national security. This article looks at the situation in the two countries, traces the origins of some of the current problems, and attempts to explain why Indonesia has generally been more successful in this respect than Myanmar, despite the similarities in the initial situations of the two countries. ItemStrategic Environment of East Asia in 2017–18 Analysis of Key Trends and Iss ues(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Wiśniewski, RafałThe international security environment of East Asia is undergoing dynamic changes. This ar¬ticle is another instalment in a series of analysis initiated by the “Strategic Review” in 2017. It deals with international security situation in various regions. The article’s main aim is to present the influence of selected international events of 2017’s second half and 2018s first half on the evolution of East Asia’s long term international security environment. In order to achieve this aim the author has posed two research questions: what long term trends have the strongest influence on international security environment of East Asia? and, do key events of 2017-18 increase or decrease stability of the regional security environment? Following research methods have been adopted to solve this research problem: the comparative method, legal-institutional analysis and forecasting method based on identification of key trends shaping the evolution of the studied phenomenon. The main conclusions are twofold. First, the most important long term trends shaping the international security environment of East Asia are, on the one side, the growing bipolarity of the regional order (with US and PRC as main protagonists) and, on the other side, other player’s attempts to increase the degree of their own autonomy. The events of 2017-18 show that almost all regional powers act to limit the tensions. It doesn’t change the fact that long term trends point towards a growing confrontation of two contradictory visions of regional order - one championed by USA, and the other by PRC. ItemIs this the Collapse of Islamic State? The Evolution of the Terrorist Threat in the Mi ddle East in 2017(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Wejkszner, ArturThe main aim of this article is to present an evolution of the terrorism threat in the Middle East in 2016. For this purpose, firstly, the essence and determinants of the contemporary terrorism threat have been analyzed. Some main Middle East terrorist organizations, actively operating in this area, have also been indicated. Secondly, the chronology and the most important terror¬ism trends in the region have been presented. A special attention has been paid to consequences of the fall of the Islamic State. And last but not least some predictive scenarios regarding the development of above phenomenon in 2017 and beyond have been pointed out. ItemA Strategic Review of the Security of European Countries(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Magiera, Maciej; Donaj, ŁukaszThis paper combines a review of the strategic security of European countries in 2017, and the creation - on the basis of the international scenario method - of short-, medium- and longterm forecasts. The authors address both the nature of armed conflicts (including the so-called ‘frozen conflicts’) and the escalation of terrorist acts. Also, the issue of the immigration crisis has been highlighted as causing both the rise of radical public sentiments and being a ‘source’ of the smuggling of people (including terrorists) and goods (including weapons which are later used in attacks). ItemEurope Within the World of Regionalisms(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Bach, Daniel C.The surge of diversified forms of regionalism and regional integration within the past few decades has stimulated the reappraisal of the conceptual tools traditionally designed to benchmark and monitor region-building processes across the world. More recently, the Brexit negotiations have become a reminder that the EU remains an unfolding experience. This article argues that the study of African regionalisms constitutes a timely invitation to revisit the experience of the EU and its contribution to the world of regionalisms. After a brief survey of the classic definition of the region, we will discuss the ongoing relevance of European integration and the implications of the analytical distinction between regionalism, regionalisation and regional integration, before drawing from the study of Africa five threads which set the basis for a comparative study of regions and regionalisms beyond the classic emphasis on the EU or the world of regions. ItemThe Role of Non-Profit Organizations in Ensuring Social Security on a Local Scale(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Bodziacki, RyszardThe democratic transformation in Poland, the beginning of which dates back to the 1980s, brought political and economic freedom that additionally inspired the activity of civil movements taking the form of non-governmental organizations. Since the early 1990s, Polish society has become clearly divided, which was illustrated by the emergence of three distinct areas of public activity. The Law of March 8, 1990 on Territorial Self-Government began the rapid development of local governments, which were given the task of handling local public matters. The Law on Business Operations, which was in force at the time, ensured freedom of operations and the principle of quality of all participants of business life. Other laws, the Law on Foundations of April 6, 1984 and the Law on Associations of April 7, 1989 restored the possibility of civil self-organization, working for one’s own circle and fulfilling social needs. Throughout the whole period of political transformation, and in particular in the decade after Poland’s accession to the European Union, NGOs have become one of the most active actors of public life, and a capable partner to local and regional authorities in designing policies. One significant element of politics involves ensuring the security of citizens. Social security is of particular importance. NGOs initiate a number of projects aiming to fulfill the basic needs of residents, thereby ensuring their personal development and confidence. Cooperation with territorial self-government is of exceptional importance here. ItemThe Inclusion Processes in the Extent of Welfare Security(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Jagusiak, BogusławThe article presents and analyzes selected basic problems coinciding with the issues of the inclusion and integration of population into the domain of social security, and it answers the research question: what is the proper, complete and exact meaning of the notions of security, social security, and social welfare? Critical semantical analysis of many works and statements, from classical to modern to newest ones, is the principal research method. According to the central conclusion, the most proper definition of social security identifies it with care, protec-tion and control and not mainly with the absence of threats. The author underscores that leading publications identify social security with protecting the existential foundations of human lives and assuring the fulfillment of individual needs (material and spiritual) and aspirations through the creation of conditions facilitating work and education, and through healthcare and pension guarantees. Part One of the article focuses on the etymology of the definition of security, and on the conventional understanding of security. Part Two is devoted to the natural definition of security, especially social security. Part Three provides information on the topic of social security, considered from the angle of protection and control of people’s living standards. ItemThe Psychological Consequences of Participation in Combat Missions and the Situational and Social Factors Behind Them: an Empirical Study(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Madej, Sylwia; Sakson-Obada, OlgaThe participation of soldiers in combat missions is one of the tasks that requires not only physical - but because of stressors - also psychological preparation. Participation in warfare involves exposure to physical, cognitive, emotional and social inconvenience and is considered an important risk factor for the psychological disturbances. However, the literature on the subject also indicates the positive effects of confrontation with the stressors (e.g. postraumatic growth). The aim of the study was to determine whether the intensity of combat exposure and social support are related to both the negative and the positive psychological consequences of participating in warfare. The study, conducted by soldiers participating in the Afghan war, showed no connection between the intensity of combat experience and the well-being of soldiers. Not informing the family about difficulties experienced by soldiers was related to a greater number of psycho¬logical disturbances. Moreover, it turned out that not received social support, but the soldier’s conviction about the possibility of receiving this form of help, together with refraining from sharing their difficulties with family members, contributed to positive psychological changes. The results demonstrated that the psychological effect of participating in a military mission is not so much dependent on the intensity of the combat experience, as from the soldier’s conviction that social support is available from non-family member. ItemBrics and New Multilateral Development Banks: Towards Recalibration of Global Economic Governance(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Rewizorski, MarekThis article addresses selected issues enmeshed into global economic governance debate. It focus¬es on a role of international institutions in transforming world order, in particular the rise of emerging powers increasingly categorised or acronymised as BRICS, their resources, power and vested interests. The main narrative brings close the phenomenon of the new reshuffling in multilateral development banking (MDB). The New Development Bank (NDB), and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) as ‘products’ of the third wave of MDB emergence, fit well into the proc¬ess coined as ‘the recalibration of the world economy.’ It is expressed by shift of the centre of glo¬bal economic gravity towards non-western actors and can be explained by arguments derived from game theory. They elucidate exit - voice nexus, where the cost of exit for both organisation leaders (Western donors) and members (EMDCs, BRICS) is fragmented multilateralism and where the cost of voice is decreasing capacity to influence principles and procedures of multilateral develop¬ment lending. The article in the first section starts with overview of three waves of multilateral development banking, where the most recent of them is partially explained using game theory argument. Second section starts from accentuating common characteristics of NDB and AIIB and then examines the differences between NDB and AIIB - entities which emerged during the third wave. The final section provides summaries and conclusions. ItemTHE STRUGGLE AGAINST GLOBAL TERRORISM AS AN EXPRESSION OF A CLASH BETWEEN CIVILISATIONS(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Nagar, Nir BarkanThe struggle against global terrorism is taking place, and it is between civilizations. It is a war against radical international terror, which is attempting to change the world order and is sowing fear among both citizens and governments. Huntington maintains that people can re-define their identity and consequently the boundaries and compositions of civilizations change. The phenomenon of the ‘Islamic State’ illustrates this. There is a cultural difference between civili¬zations that support Islamic terror, which tramples individual rights, and Western civilizations that are dedicated to pluralism and democracy. The Western world for already seven decades has been under attack by international terrorism, and the peak is the phenomenon of the ‘Islamic State’, which began in the Middle East and now is attacking Europe, and not just Europe. A dif¬ficult global war is being waged, and it is necessary to find an effective response to the threat. This response will include a multi-system strategy that addresses ideology, media, financing, and operational activity, including the handling of European residents who joined the ranks of the Islamic State and acquired operational experience, returned to Europe, and constitute an infrastructure of terrorism and terrorist attacks. The integration of forces and resources, significant operational activity, and legislative changes that curtail individual liberties, in cooperation with the moderate Muslim population, will enable the West and Europe to defeat the terrorist entities that trample in all ways the fundamental values of humanity and human life. ItemТерроризм и революция(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Гуторов (Gutorov), Владимир (Vladimir); Ширинянц (Shirinyants), Александр (Aleksandr)Статья посвящена актуальным проблемам теоретического анализа революционного тер- роризма эпохи модерна. Характеризуются специфические особенности революционного терроризма в плане сравнения исторического опыта Великой французской и Октябрьской революций. Критически оцениваются результаты интерпретации этого опыта в общесо- циологических теориях М. Манна, Б. Мура и И. Валлерстайна, а также в политической философии неомарксизма (М. Хардт, А. Негри, Р. М. Унгер, Т. Иглтон, Ф. Джеймисон). В статье отмечается, что большинство объяснительных макросоциологических моделей ограничиваются лишь «подведением итогов» террористической политики партий и госу- дарств в XVIII–XX вв. Различные аспекты дискуссии вокруг самого феномена террориз- ма и роли государства в его сдерживании или, наоборот, распространении затрагиваются в них лишь косвенно, поскольку террор как таковой нивелирован до уровня сегмента (более или менее существенного) макропроцессов и структур, определяющих эволюцию к индустриальному и постиндустриальному типу общества. При этом историческая ли- ния преемственности между различными этапами эволюции самой политической тра- диции террора трактуется в макромоделях весьма абстрактно и нередко становится едва различимой. Аналитические идеи философии современного левого радикализма также свидетельствуют о том, что неомарксистские идеологи в своем анализе современного терроризма, в определенном плане, остаются столь же приверженными абстрактным фи- лософским конструкциям, как и ученые, ориентирующиеся на макро-теоретические па- радигмы современной социологии и академического марксизма со всеми свойственными им несомненными преимуществами и неизбежными аберрациями. ItemTHE BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE (BRI): IMPLICATIONS FOR IRAN-CHINA RELATIONS(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Osiewicz, PrzemysławThe article focuses on the Belt and Road Initiative, which was introduced by the leadership of the People’s Republic of China in 2013, and its political as well as economic implications for Iran-China relations. The ongoing implementation of the Chinese initiative raises a few research questions. Would both sides benefit from the cooperation in the BRI framework or would one of them maybe have the upper hand? What are the main opportunities and challenges in the case of China-Iran relations and BRI implementation? The analysis is conducted in the framework of the grand strategy theory. This study is based on primary sources such as official governmental documents, speeches of influential politicians, and official statistical data. Besides these sources, information from secondary sources like monographs and academic articles was taken into consideration. ItemInternal Factors and its Impact on Iranian Foreign Policy(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2018) Fiedler, RadosławThe Islamic Republic of Iran has a political structure with co-shared and competitive activity in the field of foreign policy. There are two power centres the president and the supreme leader. Iranian political elite is composed of factions of the conservatives, moderates, pragmatists, and reformers. Each faction has influence on the course of Iranian foreign policy. The dominant faction, conservatives, has caused isolation and imposition of severe sanctions on Iran during Ahmadinejad’s presidency Although domestic sources of foreign policy reveals competition among different factions there is consensus in principal goals of Iranian foreign policy.