ItemRemarques sur un aspect quantitatif de la phraséologie comparée(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Bogacki, KrzysztofPhraseology provides a convenient way to study conceptual images of things, animals, phenomena etc. as they characterize different cultures and civilizations. On the other hand, the comparison of idioms with nouns of animals in two languages makes possible the calculus of numerical indices which can be used to measure the degree of intensity of isomorphism in the two compared lexicons. ItemUn peu de matière sans forme. L’Eucharistie selon Simone Weil(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Tomczak, PatrycjaThe article Some shapeless matter. The Eucharist according to Simone Weil constitutes a hermeneutic approach of the Eucharistic reality which operates at two levels, thematic and textual. The examination consists in analyzing respectively both conceptions of the Eucharist (apparently reducing) developed by Simone Weil, namely that of the real agreement and that of the fragment of matter. The analysis ends in the discovery of a kerygmatic modality which authorizes and supports the paradoxical reasoning. Finally, within the framework of the fragmentary writing, the reflection aims at enlightening the relation between the Eucharist (bread) and the hermeneutics (word), based on the principle of allusion which replaces that of analogy. Item«Joumal du dehors» et «La vie extérieure» d'Annie Ernaux: l'engagement au quotidien(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Thiel-Jańczuk, KatarzynaThe article «"Journal du dehors» et «La vie extérieure» d'Annie Ernaux: l'engagement au quotidien" is an analysis of Ernaux's two texts within P. Bourdieu's sociological perspective. Taking an observation of the surrounding reality, where the narrative "I" is situated, as a starting point, Ernaux distinguishes two types of everyday situations: rituals and individual activities. The former shape mass behaviour which is governed by the political and economic system, whereas the latter - labelled by M. de Certeau as «pratiques subversives» - subconsciously go beyond the norm-established behaviour. Both types belong to popular culture and concern people who are dominated (domines). Taking their side, both word and deed, Ernaux defies the conventional structures she is entangled in by the mere fact of being a writer. Ernaux expresses this defiance in two ways. First, by rejecting the elitist notion of creator, second, through abandoning memory as a source of writing, by resigning from the genre of novel in favour of texts which deal with the synchronic movement of the narrative "I" in the world. ItemLa crítica ideológica como risa en «Figuraciones en el mes de marzo» de Emilio Díaz Valcárcel(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Sotomayor Parrilla, Eduardo EnrigueThe aim of this paper is to prove the underlying relation between laugh and the ideological criticism in the novel "Figuraciones en el mes de marzo" by a Puerto Rican writer, Emilio Díaz Valcárcel. The author explains the way of understanding the key words of laugh and ideological criticism. The attention of a leader should be attracted to three lines in the analysis of the novel of question. With these three aspects together, in the ideological project of the novel is given the deeply innovatory significance for a literary, of the necessity of the national liberation for shaping the common collective destiny in the specific case of Puerto Rico. Discussing two of them - 1) the particularly humoristic-satirical tone which fluctuates between the subtle irony and the effect of laugh, 2) the "collage" organization of the novel, the author comes to the third - showing, the high ideological commitment of the writer with the process of independence of Puerto Rico within the space of the beginning of the seventies, he draws his final conclusions about the profound democratic and critical meaning of humour and laugh as the source of the symbolic liberation. ItemStéréotypes nationaux et création romanesque dans «Á la Recherche du temps perdu»(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Fraisse, LucIn his novel cycle Á la recherche du temps perdu (1913-1927), Marcel Proust takes up a long-lasting process of psychological analysis carried on in the first person. This person represents, in a way, human nature and the reader's thought as well. Therefore, it seems that the question of national stereotypes should not have found its place in this kind of work, in which the fundamental psychological project did not allow the author to caricature national particularisms. Yet, they do find their incarnations in the whole series of characters (Poznań archives enable us to show even the hidden source of one of them) in order to subject this stereotypical vision to analysis and more profound criticism. What is peculiar, however, is that in the final analysis, prejudices against foreign nations are positively re-assessed because they help to understand the nature of the novelist's vision and literary activity. ItemInterférences artistiques dans l'æuvre de Roger Martin du Gard(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Emeis, HaraldThe article deals with the ways in which Roger Martin du Gard, makes use of elements drawn from other fields of artistic activity such as sculpture, painting, music, dance, and cinema, in his writings. The object of this paper is an analysis of the novelist's purpose and of the effect that the technique in question has on the reader. ItemToleranţa in "Peccavistanul" lui Salman Rushdie între ruşine şi neruşinare(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Cofan, Aluniţa CodruţaAfter a little theoretical and philosophical introduction to what tolerance means for our contemporary society, we are trying to analyse two ways of the tolerance of the contemporary novelist, Salman Rushdie, in his novel "The Shame". The first of them concerns the discursive tolerance, as a narrative organisation or structure, and the second is about the internal tolerance of the epic ideas. Drawing the conclusions, we can assert the following: for both ways of our examination: the faint and the marginal fight to occupy a central positon belonging to the strong. However, this never wins or if he wins, it is only temporarily. So, even the tolerance has to exist, in fact, it does not exist. ItemLes collocations verbo-nominales et la traduction(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Vetulani, GrażynaThe main issue addressed in this paper is how to represent complex lexical structures in dictionaries. We focus on verb-noun type collocations. We argue in favour of the concept of lexicon-grammars as a useful, general framework to show how lexical units, simple or compound, behave within the language system. We postulate development of lexicons grouping similar collocations in families according to a central meaning (common for each such family). Lexicons of that kind are precious not only as basic tools for human translators, but also as an essential part of all kinds of software contributing to the development of Human Language Technologies. ItemQuand la compétence traductologique dépasse la compétence rédactionnelle(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Tomaszkiewicz, TeresaThis article discusses a characteristic style of John Paul II' homilies, delivered during his first pilgrimage to Poland in 1979. The author touches the question of the censorship who had an influence on the way of translating these texts and ponders the limits of liberty and faithfulness of a translator who prepares his translations in a definite social and political context. ItemDe la métaphore dans la langue informatique(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Pirogowska, EwaThe French of information science is a variant of a lively general language submitted to constant changes. In order to bring closer, better understand and get acqainted with the technical terms either names of equipment, programmes, or situations peculiar to computer reality, the user refers to everyday life (e.g. passerelle, English gateway; souris, English mouse) or to universal or mythological concepts (e.g. argonautes - internautes) thanks to the phenomenon of metaphor. It sometimes happens that the original concept, which served as a basis for the creation of a metaphor, is obliterated memory and computer users apply a new term being unaware of its origin. Just in this way during metaphoric operations totally new words are formed and they influence the specific character of the language of information science. Item'Terminativo’ vs 'no terminativo': entre oposiciones y ambigüedades tempo-aspectiiates (el caso de las préteritos)(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Nowikow, WiaczesławThe aim of this paper is to specify the properties 'terminative' and 'non-terminative' in their relation to grammatical categories Preterite and Imperfect Tenses in Spanish and Perfective and lmperfective Aspects in Polish. The authour introduces the distinction between 'temporal delimitation' and process conclusion'. The latter implies the first one, but this relation doesn't function „the other way round". ItemLes exposants morphologiąues et syntaxiques de la symétrie en français(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Nkollo, MikołajThe present paper deals with the exponents of symmetry in contemporary French. Apart from expressions that do not bear any markers of this type of relation, there are others where this property is closely related to their morphemic structure. It is argued that such a morphological exponence holds when verbal stems are preceded by the prefixes entre- and co-. The forms with these markers are carefully scrutinized with regard to their combinatory and derivational features. It is claimed that the verbs with the entre- prefix are, as far as the word-formation is concerned, more regular than those with co-. If the morphemic analysis fails in explaining the semantic value of an affix, it is necessary to fall back on the description of syntagmatic properties of lexical items that incorporate it. Of special importance among syntactic exponents of symmetry is the adjunction of prepositional phrase introduced by avec. This operation establishes unequivocally the semantic value of verbs with co-. Furthermore, if such a prepositional phrase is attached to one-place predicates, it adds a new argument and becomes, jointly with the verb, the exponent of a symmetric relation. The last syntactic exponent of symmetry dealt with here is the expression l’un l'autre. Once it is added to the verb phrase, it emphasizes the presence of such a relation in the meaning of the predicate. The paper attempts to cast a new light on the way syntactic structures of the phrases with predicative expressions that designate symmetric relations are modified. ItemL'État est-il en mesure d'infléchir le «sort» d'une langue?(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Kramer, NataliyaThe author ponders in her article - based mainly on the example of the Norwegian language - whether state's interference through its specialised organs may influence the development and formation of language norms. In conclusion the author claims that only the combination of "language management approach" and "free enterprise style" may give satisfactory results in managing problems of the language. ItemVers un modèle pédagogique de compréhension des textes(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Karpińska-Szaj, KatarzynaThe interactive reading model deals with the capacity for reading in terms of text reception in a native language. In the article, we try to place the interactive reading model in the foreign language learning/teaching situation, assuming that mental operations carried out by a foreign language reader learner can be described as strategies of understanding. By showing the specific nature of such strategies and distinguishing a superior strategy (the one that controls the use of the others), we attempt to build a didactic model of text reception in a foreign language. ItemLa traduction en polonais des textes d'ancien français: une compétence spécifique(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Giermak-Zielińska, TeresaThis paper is relating a practical experience of teaching Romance philology students the translation from ancient French into Polish. The main scope is a restitution of an ancient text respecting not only the equivalence at the Iexical and syntactical level, but also the discourse structures, such as the linear sequence of events and events related from different points of view: some examples of solving particular problems are discussed. The whole procedure resembles that of translating from Latin, rather than a translation from one modern language to another. ItemQuelques remarques sur l'isotopie sémantique(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Florczak, JacekThe aim of this paper is to present a few theoretical remarks on the concept of semantic isotopy from the point of view of interpretative semantics and to add some exaraples of application of this concept in practice. In the paper we present the basie definitions of semantic isotopy (iso - identity topos - of the topie in several signification units) and describe the main classifications of this concept (systemie and discursive isotopy, intrinsic and extrinsic isotopy and others). We also discuss the fundamental semantic relations in the polyisotopic text on the levels of semes - semantic features, of sememes - words which contain these features and of isotopy of a text - in which different words contain the same semantic feature. Finally we describe the basie interpretational operations that regulate the assignment of significations to words in a context and we propose a strategy of text interpretation oriented on isotopy. ItemTraduire l'expression «soi-disant» en polonais: le cas des copies d'étudiants(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Dutka-Mańkowska, AnnaStudents' translations into Polish of the French expression soi disant (found in the "Frantext" programme) are considered on two Ievels: that of linguistic means used (modalisers, antonymous modality, apparent reported speech, verb expressions of the type: vouloir/paraitre/passer pour and ways of quoting another discourse (possibility of using explicite/implicite). The semantic and contrastive approach appears to be useful in the description of Polish words (e.g. niejako), particularly difficult from the point of view of the theory of combinations. ItemSchémas formels des textes de presse: implications pour le développement des capacités rédactionnelles en FLE(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Blachowska-Szmigiel, MarzenaThe writing of expositive-explicative and argumentative texts is most difficult in learning French at the advanced level. This is due to the fact that students must have not only a knowledge of language and skills in communication but also (or, perhaps, in the first place) the ability to reason. The difficulties also result from the specific formal-rhetorical nature of the above mentioned types of texts. In this article, we propose to make use of the formal patterns of press texts in order to develop the capacity for cohesive writing in French at the advanced level. Item«Venire» vs «andare» - distinzioni pragmatiche(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Drzymała, PiotrThe paper presents an explication of semantic differences between the two Italian verbs, venire and andare, in a pragmatic perspective, i.e. referring to the presupposition. A distinction is initially made between presuppositions, on the one hand, inherent in some lexical items, syntactic structures and prosodic features and, on the other, those "generated" by specific speech acts. The presuppositions inherent in both of these verbs permit an exhaustive contrastive description of their occurrences, even in non-deictic uses and transpositions from direct to indirect speech, which constitutes a contribution to the didactics of Italian as a foreign language. ItemProcessus, modèles, produits - comment des étudiants polonais traduisent Flaubert(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2003) Dąmbska-Prokop, UrszulaThe author presents an analysis of translations of fragments of G. Flaubert’s Madame Bovary by 19 students, concentrating on types of errors and difficulties encountered during this exercise. In the next part of the article a certain typology of these problems and an attempt at explanation of their background are proposed.