Środkowoeuropejskie Studia Polityczne, 2012, nr 2

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    Język polityki w warunkach kampanii permanentnej na przykładzie miasta Wałbrzycha
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Glinka, Kamil
    The dynamic development of information channels influences the form and nature of the activities of political actors. This is particularly true for the mechanisms and rules typical of political competition at a local level. Therefore, it is justified to present the most significant phenomena, trends and activities with respect to the language of political actors active in Wa³brzych in the context of a permanent election campaign. These include, among other things, the essentially impoverished and vulgarized language of politics. It is also necessary to analyze the metaphors and the degree of persuasiveness of this language. It is also appropriate to present the ideas used for this purpose. The timeframe of the paper’s subject is marked by the elections for the office of town mayor and seats on the council in 2010 and the repeat elections in 2011.
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    Kampania wyborcza na fotelu prezydenckim – skuteczne metody zarządzania informacją w mieście
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Jadachowska, Anna
    The paper discusses the role new media play in the information policy of a politician running for office based on the example of the campaign run by the candidate for the office of president of Radomsko, Anna Milczanowska. As the Internet is becoming increasingly influential and the interest in social platforms increases, the assumptions of PR activities have changed. The paper emphasizes that at present the senders of a message do not require traditional media to reach the recipient. It demonstrates that the proverbial ‘single click’ of a mouse is sufficient to notify thousands about the sender’s activities. This thoroughly changes the position of PR officers, as one-way communication has been replaced by a two-way dialogue once and for all. Local authorities have obtained a new tool which on the one hand facilitates genuine contact, but on the other, subjects them to a greater degree of social assessment.
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    Rola fotografii w komunikowaniu politycznym na przykładzie „portretu podwójnego” Lecha i Marii Kaczyńskich
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Mateja, Magdalena
    The catastrophe in Smoleñsk has significantly affected the image of Lech Kaczyński presented in the media, which has quite clearly translated into social opinions. Words of praise for his presidency and remarks that he had been underesti- mated became increasingly frequent. The picture of Mr and Mrs Kaczyñski therefore became a tool for generating a new image of the President, facilitating a kind of posthumous ‘rebranding’. This image breakthrough provided the Law and Justice (PiS) party with the ‘added value’ of the sympathy of most of the media and the social trust Maria Kaczyñska enjoyed before and after April 10, 2010, in contrast to her husband. The ‘double portrait,’ multiplied by the press at the time of national mourning, later became an expression of an affirmative approach extended to a defined political circle. It is not surprising then that PiS, which has emphasized the value of ‘Lech Kaczyński’s testament’ and assumed the role of the depositary of his policy, has utilized the photography of the presidential couple (and their biographies) on many occasions.
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    Cel uświęca środki? O współczesnym wymiarze politycznego makiawelizmu na przykładzie wyborów samorządowych w 2010 roku w województwie opolskim
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Kaczmarek, Mirela
    The paper is an attempt to analyze the marketing activities of selected candidates running for office in the local authorities of the Opolskie Region in 2010. A large proportion of these candidates implemented the Machiavellian principle that the end justifies the means, and they tried to win power, almost trampling over corpses, using all available methods to succeed. Niccol ò Machiavelli, the author of The Prince argued five centuries earlier that the good of state justifies ruses, cruelty and violence. The present face of political Machiavellianism is different, as many people value power itself rather than the good of the state or region. As a result, voters observe a political farce under the official name of an election campaign. The local government campaign in the Opolskie Region in 2010 reminded a political circus with a number of pseudo-events keenly reported by the media, instead of real content that could give potential voters an idea of what the candidates had to offer. Some tried to win voters feeding them with sweets, others cleared snow from pavements in the middle of winter, yet others paid those who promised to vote for them. The latter are probably still suffering from post-election hiccups, as they will have to explain this electoral corruption in court.
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    Prezydenckie prawybory w Platformie Obywatelskiej jako przykład politycznego show
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Maguś, Wojciech
    The presidential primaries in Civic Platform in 2010 were an unprecedented event in Polish politics. They were carefully planned and skillfully carried out. The clash between Sikorski and Komorowski was attractive to the mass media, due to the increasing personalization of politics. The primaries were also attractive because this undertaking was unusual. It should also be stressed that the party that organized them demonstrated that, as a result of the professionalization of communication, it was able to reach voters over the heads of the media, at least to some extent. This is exemplified by the debate between Komorowski and Sikorski, where the media were instrumentally used as a ‘conveyor belt’ to transmit content that was entirely ‘produced’ by the party.
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    Polityczne show jako nowoczesny przykład komunikowania politycznego. Narodziny telewizyjnych debat wyborczych w Wielkiej Brytanii
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Rożewska, Agnieszka
    Three debates involving the leaders of the main political parties in the UK attracted first-time voters in the 2010 elections. The analysis of the Reuters Institute, based on YouGov’s questionnaires, confirmed that the 18–24 age group had shown particular interest in the debates. After the elections, 55% of the young electorate declared that the leaders’ debates had helped them to make up their minds, whereas 92% admitted having exchanged opinions in their circles after the debates. Television debates have thus been shown to have a considerable influence on voters and in particular on first-time voters. The very fact that the debates enjoyed such enormous audience interest demonstrates the influence they have on the development of public discourse; political debates have been written about and discussed extensively. They have also undoubtedly become an unforgettable TV spectacle.
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    Blogi polityków. Kto, dlaczego i o czym pisze?
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Bagieńska-Masiota, Aleksandra
    Blogging is a global, widespread and fashionable phenomenon. While some European politicians blog, their American counterparts are in the lead in their pragmatic attitude to the Internet, approached as a means to win voters. Regardless of location, though, blogs spread ideas and present the candidate’s profile, whether by means of written or spoken (podcast) text. The first services facilitating blogs in Polish (e.g. Onet.pl) appeared in 2001–2002. At present blogs are written by representatives of the legislative and executive power, as well as by local authorities. Blogs play the role of political propaganda, featuring a combination of informative and persuasive functions. They are about presenting political issues in terms of conflict and struggle. Another significant function fulfilled by blogs is to raise a given politician’s profile. To a lesser extent, blogs also perform the function of personal space and provide information on the activities of the authorities.
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    Kampania negatywna, czy nieistniejący „czarny” PR, jako metody dyskredytowania przeciwnika politycznego
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Noremberg, Damian
    The difference between a negative campaign and a dirty one is clearly defined. The mechanisms of a dirty campaign cannot be named ‘black PR’ as this does not exist and any member of an election committee who employs such methods to discredit their opponents should not be called a public relations specialist at all. It is to be hoped that we will see a reality where anybody running a dirty campaign will bear the consequences of their activities and be eliminated from the ranks of this magnificent profession dealing with social communication in politics, and from any other activity applying PR tools.
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    Język ideologii a język agresji w wypowiedziach politycznych
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Laskowska, Elżbieta
    The writer works on the assumption that each linguistic statement interprets reality. Evaluation is a particular form of interpretation. Some statements assign value from the point of view of an adopted ideology. The writer applies A. Heywood’s understanding of ideology and various ideologies. The language of ideology is sometimes accompanied in public discourse by the language of aggression, which expresses negative emotions and, unlike the language of criticism, discredits an individual. On the basis of public statements quoted by the writer, she tries to demonstrate that the language of ideology does not necessarily have to be that of aggression, and that aggression does not have to be inspired by ideological differences between the speaker and the person subjected to aggression.
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    Infotainment jako narzędzie formatowania społeczeństwa w warunkach medialnej demokracji
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Golinowski, Janusz
    As the mass media spread a defined format of ‘cultural repertoires’, they operate both in the cognitive and affective realms – they present problems and issues to society (societies), they form public opinion and stimulate actors to undertake actions. These result in both actual and symbolic unification of individuals and groups on various levels of the organization of community life. Even after a superficial observation of present activities it can be assumed that the process of marketization of social life, which includes the realm of culture and human relations, has been subjected to the influence of a populist rhetoric, which is rooted in the therapeutic function mass culture performs, formatting and unifying citizens’ behavior. The reasons for this can be sought in the tendency, which is typical both of economic and political marketing, to make promises and refer to unconditioned human desires. Overfamiliarity and excessive expression can play the same role in persuading viewers to accept the ‘only right opinion’, as can the propaganda of a given political platform under authoritarian conditions. In these terms the normative approach to the realm of politics and the politicization of social life reveal their anachronistic nature in defining real decision processes.
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    Konstruowanie wzajemnych relacji jako element stylu uprawiania polityki PO i PiS
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Marzęcki, Radosław
    The subject of this paper is an analysis of behavior on the Polish political stage. Its starting point is a reflection on conflict and consensus in a democratic system. This general context requires us to approach these phenomena in terms of a range of aspects which can in turn affect the final assessment of conflict and consensus from the point of view of the quality of the political system. It turns out that the most important communication channels for this interaction are systematically and consistently closed by both sides involved in the conflict. The assumption that this political activity is inspired by marketing suggests that such a strategy has been planned in advance and is rationally implemented.
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    Kampania permanentna versus kampania, której nie było. Rzecz o wyborze prezydenta miasta Kielce
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Kasińska-Metryka, Agnieszka; Olszewski, Piotr
    The purpose of the paper is to try to answer the question of the efficiency of permanent campaigns. In the context of elections to local governments, the behavior of the electorate seems to be influenced by factors that are somewhat different than in the case of presidential or parliamentary elections. Particular assets are the directly verifiable achievements of the candidates. Town mayors running for office for a second term are somewhat privileged, provided that during their office they managed to avoid making grave mistakes or behaving with negligence. The analysis concerns the elections for the office of mayor of Kielce in 2010, which were chosen due to the specific activity of the main candidate, that is the then mayor of Kielce, Wojciech Lubawski. The candidate’s limited election activity justifies the hypothesis that he did not run a permanent campaign and raises the question of how the strategy he adopted influenced the election results in Kielce.
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    Ewolucja marketingu politycznego w percepcji wyborców
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Churska-Nowak, Karolina; Fojutowski, Łukasz
    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how political marketing is perceived by voters. The paper poses research questions and hypotheses with respect to the potential positive and negative consequences of the development of marketing-oriented politics. The empirical part confronts those assumptions with the reality. It presents the results of research into the perception of political marketing by university students in Poznań.
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    Wyspecjalizowane agencje marketingowe w działalności rynkowej krajowych organizacji politycznych
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Sempach, Marek
    The paper tries to identify the role of specialized marketing agencies in the market activities of Polish political parties. It is based on the extensive observations the author carried out with respect to the application of marketing instruments in the political market. The purpose of the text is to demonstrate how political organizations can gain a competitive advantage by permanent cooperation with professional companies offering marketing consulting services. The starting point of these considerations is the concept of Jennifer Lees-Marshment, a researcher into political marketing from New Zealand, who assumes the total market orientation of a modern political organization (Market Oriented Party). According to her, a party should work the way a business does, ceaselessly meeting the needs of its consumer-voters.
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    Zachowania polityczne a zachowania wyborcze w dobie kampanii permanentnej
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Scheffs, Łukasz
    This paper attempts to define and identify mutual relations between the notion of political behaviors and electoral behaviors. The reference point for their operationalization is the particular time of broadly understood political activity, namely the time of an election campaign (or even a permanent campaign). Political behaviors are approached as any form of individual or group involvement in a political process or in any activity producing political outcomes. In terms of individuals – humans, political behaviors are constituted by a reaction of individuals or social groups to the stimuli rooted in political phenomena and processes. It is important to note that like all conscious human behaviors, also political behaviors result from a particular state of consciousness. A slightly narrower category, provided by what we could call a classical approach, are voters’ electoral behaviors. These concern the relationship between voters and political parties, and they are expressed, for example, by means of the voting act. Understood in this way, political behaviors facilitate gaining knowledge of the electorate and their evolution. This knowledge allows political parties to adopt optimal strategies at the time of elections and in their parliamentary activity. This paper is an attempt at demonstrating that the electorate’s behaviors at the time of a permanent campaign are identical with political behaviors. It is assumed that when the entire political activity boils down to continuous striving for the support of citizens, and the state apparatus – including the decision-making center – is transformed into a tool designed to maintain the popularity of the authorities, all activities in the realm of politics resemble the behaviors that are strictly related to the electoral act.
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    Dziennikarze i politycy. Blisko, coraz bliżej
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Piechocki, Marcin
    The relations between the media and political systems are of particular importance for Polish democracy, which is a mere twenty years old. The modern media landscape involves elements of the breaking of journalistic standards, the politicization and subordination of the public media to a particular party, commercial media support for political parties, local government institutions publishing their own press releases, and journalists on election lists. Aware of the influence the media may have on the social perception of politics, political actors treat the media instrumentally, knowing that they can be used to make voters aware of their existence. It is particularly dangerous for the media to support defined political forces because the price of such support remains unknown. The issue of the public media needs to be urgently resolved. If the legislator acknowledges the need for them to operate, they need to be ensured appropriate financing and independence. If such a need is not perceived, Polish Television and Polish Radio should be privatized. Voters and recipients of the media need to realize that objective journalism may be an ideal, but this does not release media workers from the requirement of maintaining their professional integrity. Separating information from commentary and presenting the arguments of all sides in political disputes are a standard to be required of all mass media.
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    Rekwizyt jako narzędzie komunikowania politycznego
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Jakubowski, Jakub
    A product that needs to be promoted and sold and the information published in the media alike undergo a process of ‘merchandization’. Therefore a given message has to be included in the mainstream media content observing the principle of maximized profit, or, in this case, reaching a mass audience. This generates the realm of specialized competition to win an individual’s interest, named ‘attention economics’ by Georg Franck. In order to get the message across to concrete recipients, broadcasters have to take appropriate steps to prevent their information from being rejected. For this purpose the actors on the political stage apply modern communication tools to (directly) attract the attention of the (indirectly) mass media audience. One such tool is a prop that can be used as a means to deprecate an opponent, an element of a political image, a source of symbolism, or an iconographic form used to present the issue in question. Trying to attract the attention of mediators in the communication process is a strategy to win popularity, which is in turn supposed to increase the probability of success during the elections, which increasingly more often are becoming a pure popularity poll.
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    Kampania wyborcza w nowych mediach - aspekty prawne
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Skrzypczak, Jędrzej
    One of the most interesting social phenomena in the field of social communication, that is the emergence of the new media in the 21st century, has obviously been noted and used by election committees. The paper tries to analyze whether this phenomenon has been similarly noted and accounted for by Polish legislators. An impulse for these considerations was additionally provided by the Act of 5 January 2011 on the Election Code passed in 2011. This normative act has been adopted in the digital era but it virtually ignores the presence of the ‘new media’. While it is true that the interpretation of some regulations may be broadened to include them as well, this will likely generate numerous doubts and a sense of legal uncertainty. Given the transformations in the media market, the legal solutions adopted may soon turn out to be irrelevant to the main course of election campaigns.
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    Harcownik – nowy typ wizerunku politycznego
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Pawełczyk, Piotr
    The paper discusses the theoretical prerequisites for applying the notion of a political image to the analysis of political reality in terms of marketing. The author particularly emphasizes the personal traits that condition a politician’s image. He indicates that modern mass media demonstrate the need to present politics as both struggle and entertainment. This necessitates the need for politicians’ new images to combine the apparently contradictory features of hero and jester. One of these images is that of a political skirmisher.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego