Item‘New’ and ‘old’ wars - the changing dimensions of warfare(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Antczak, AnnaThe article aims to present the issue of ‘old’ versus ‘new’ wars in relation to their specific features. It focuses on the characteristics of both phenomena, as well as providing an analysis of the causes and sources of armed conflicts and their changing dimensions. Methods of waging war have changed along with the political, economic, social and technological developments which have been observed over the years. The very philosophy of war has undergone changes in a similar way. The article aims to identify the direction of changes in the dimensions of war. It also provides an insight into the privatization of warfare and the constantly growing importance of non-state actors in shaping the international order, and therefore their role in postmodern wars. ItemJournalistic investigations and cabinet crises in the Third Polish Republic (selected examples)(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Adamczyk, WojciechThis article focuses on the influence of investigative journalism on the system of government, and, in particular, on the functioning and break-up of cabinet coalitions in Poland after 1989. It focuses on the parliamentary-cabinet form of government. The source of conflicts which led to the loss of the necessary trust or accelerated the fall of the government were often crises caused by the work of investigative journalists, in which they disclosed facts uncomfortable for members of the Council of Ministers, related to them either directly, through their own reprehensible activities, or indirectly, through the activities of their closest associates. The aim of this article is to show that the unmasking of scandals involving members of the government, their associates or politicians and officials from their political base is a catalyst that can generate cabinet crises, including the collapse of the government. Analyses show the impact of scandals revealed during the term of office of four governments, that of Waldemar Pawlak, Leszek Miller, Jarosław Kaczyński and Donald Tusk. ItemDigital exclusion as a hindrance to the emergence of the information society: the case of Poland(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Walkowski, MaciejThere is no doubt, that digital transformation (knowledge-based transformation) has emerged as the crucial megatrend in modem civilization. Artificial intelligence (AI), machines and autonomous vehicles, the Internet of Things (IoT), financial technology (Fin/Tech), smart investing and the analysis and processing of big data are the most recent manifestations of this trend, but not the only ones. All of these phenomena have led to the emergence and continuing development of the so-called ‘Information Society’ (IS), which refers to a new type of social organization that is clearly distinct from the earlier forms of society. In this new society, information and knowledge play an essential role in facilitating the Knowledge-Based Economy (KBE), where information is collected, transmitted and processed in a faster and more effective manner, and can subsequently be used to foster accelerated economic growth. Unfortunately, the problem of digital exclusion still occurs, also in Poland. The author in the conclusion comes to opinion that people who are digitally excluded find it much more difficult to overcome psychological rather than technical barriers to having access to the Internet and learning basic computer skills. This situation calls for urgent improvement. In the modern information society, a lack of basic knowledge about computers translates into partial or total digital illiteracy and makes it difficult to perform a range of everyday tasks. It is therefore essential in Poland to prevent digital exclusion. People who do not use the Internet are socially and professionally limited, or virtually handicapped, which results in quantifiable economic losses. This translates to lower creativity and innovativeness and reduced revenue of state budget, and impedes the competitiveness of the economy and the development of a post-modern, post-industrial social model. The main research goal is to show the causes of the phenomenon of digital exclusion in Poland and ways to counteract it. In the course of the research, the most frequently used method was causal and effect analysis as well as institutional and legal analysis. Elements of the decision-making, historical, comparative and statistical methods were also used. ItemHow long can the term of office of the Polish parliament last? A legal-constitutional analysis(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Litwin, TomaszThe main research aim of this article is an analysis of the length of the parliamentary term of office in Poland based on the analysis of legal rules. According to the art. 98 para. 1 of the Constitution, the parliamentary term of office starts on the day on which the Sejm assembles for its first sitting and ends on the day preceding the first assembly of the newly elected Sejm. Although the mentioned rule also expressly states that parliamentary term of office lasts 4 years, the length of the particular terms of office could be very different. If the parliamentary term of office is shortened, it could last even less than two months. If it is prolongated because of the introduction of the extraordinary measure, it could last approx. 5 years (in case of emergency state), or it maximal length can not be defined. Moreover, even in case of the “normal” terms of office they could have different length - slightly less than 4 years or longer than 4 years by even a few weeks. The presented considerations lead to the conclusion that there is need to make certain amendments of the rules of law concerning this area, which would ensure minimal 4 years length of the “normal” parliamentary term and regulate the organisation of the parliamentary elections after the termination of the extraordinary measure. Author analysed the legal rules basing on legal-dogmatic method and interpreted them by using such methods of their interpretation as: language-logical, teleological and systematic. ItemE-politics from the citizens’ perspective. The role of social networking tools in influencing citizens(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Kapsa, IzabelaThe progress of civilization, supported by the development of new technologies, has led to a series of social, economic and political changes. The information society, in its expectations and through access to knowledge, has significantly affected a change in the model of democracy, causing a kind of return to the original forms of communication in citizen-government relations. This has been accompanied by a shift of social and civic activism from the real to the virtual world. In literature, the use of information and communication technologies in the democratic system is named electronic democracy. One of its forms is e-politics, which is implemented at several levels: institutional, system and civil. A good example of the last type are the new social movements that in recent years have had a significant impact on politics. The basic research problem in this paper concerns e-politics from the citizens’ perspective, through the activities of the new social movements, especially of a political nature. The main research goal is therefore to present the role of social networking tools in influencing citizens and their subsequent activities that have triggered changes in the political system. The methods used in the paper are case study and comparative analysis. ItemThe relationship between position on an electoral list and chances of winning a seat in a representative body; experiences from the 2015 Sejm election in Poland(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Rachwał, MarcinThis paper examines the relationship between the candidate’s position on an electoral list and the feasibility of winning a seat in the Sejm (the lower chamber of the Polish parliament). This research hypothesizes that winning a seat strongly depends on the candidate having a top position on the electoral list. This hypothesis is verified vis-à-vis the results of the 2015 election to the Sejm. The study confirmed the initial assumption, since it was found that nearly 82% of the seats were taken by the candidates from the so-called “seat-winning places,” namely the top places on the lists of candidates (the number of these places equals the number of seats taken by a given party in a given constituency). ItemThe Mayor of a Municipality - Competences, Qualifications, Current Status in the Slovak Republic(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Kovâcovâ, EleonóraThe mandatory authorities - the municipal office and the mayor of the municipality - play an irreplaceable role at the municipal level. Both bodies are elected. These authorities influence the direction of municipal development in the upcoming term of office, the municipal representatives’ protection of citizens’ needs and interests as well as fulfilment of the tasks and obligations imposed by the law. The main aim of the article is to clarify the importance and seriousness of the mayor as the highest representative of the municipal government in the Slovak Republic. Another aim is to present new realities connected with the mayor’s office as well as new requirements associated with it. ItemSocial Security of Citizens in the Manifesto of the Christian Democratic Union and the Christian Social Union for the 2017 Parliamentary Election in Germany(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Plecka, Danuta; Rutkowska, PatrycjaThis article aims to analyze the common manifesto of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany and the Christian-Social Union in Bavaria regarding social security, with regard to the elections to the German parliament in 2017. The basic assumption was to verify whether the CDU/CSU grouping referred to each of the elements of social security, i.e. social security system, welfare security, community security and developmental security, in its 2017 election manifesto. The method used to complete the study was content analysis. The study shows that the CDU/CSU Union in its common manifesto of 2017 - Für ein Deutschland, in dem wir gut und gerne leben. Regierungsprogramm 2017-2021, raised issues related to building the social security of citizens. The proposals that were included in the program allow us to conclude that the CDU/CSU proposed a program that develops each of the pillars of social security in part, but which is still lacking in some ways. It should be noted that the issue of culture has been somewhat overlooked, which undoubtedly has a huge impact on the development of social capital and human capital, despite its enormous impact on two of the pillars, community and development. Other areas and proposals aimed at their development manage to fill this gap. It should also be pointed out that in the electoral proposals included in the manifesto, the most developed pillar was related to social security, implemented as part of the social policy of the state. ItemThe Political System of the Republic of Turkey, Past and Present(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Marszałek-Kawa, Joanna; Burak, AhmetThe first constitution of the Ottoman-Turkish Empire was adopted in 1876 - the Kânûn-i Esâsî (Eng. Fundamental Law). In its history, Turkey has had four constitutions. They were adopted in 1921, 1924, 1961, and 1982, with the latter being presently in force. Nowadays, the creation of a new constitution is the main issue on Turkey’s political agenda. The government of Turkey and Mr. Recep Tayyip Erdogan want to amend the constitution, and envisage creating an executive presidential sys¬tem (Tur. Ba§kanlik sistemi), similar to that of the Russian Federation and the United States. Critics are concerned about what Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s motivation may be. This article analyzes the histori¬cal roots of the constitution, its amendments, the presidential system in Turkey and the arguments of the Republican People’s Party (CHP) and Peoples’ Democratic Party (HDP) against the adoption of a presidential system. The key issues that the authors address are the changes that could be made under Turkey’s new constitution and whether all political power would be concentrated in president’s hands. ItemThe Tenets of Trumpism - from Political Realism to Populism(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Waśko-Owsiejczuk, EwelinaThe purpose of this article is to analyze US foreign policy under the new White House administration and to present the most important aspects of Trump’s emerging doctrine, with the aim of answering the following questions: what are the goals and tenets of, and the measures to implement, the foreign policy outlined in the new US National Security Strategy? Which trends can be considered dominant in Trump’s emerging doctrine? What challenges and threats to international security were mentioned in the document? Do traditional US allies still play an important role in the superpower’s security strategy? The thesis of this paper is that political realism is the main trend in Trump’s emerging doctrine and that US foreign policy has taken a unilateral course, with a large dose of populism. ItemA Political Economy of Trans-Border Migration Crises and Human Trafficking in Africa(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Zoaka, Yusufu A.Encouraged by porous border boundaries in Africa, trafficking in persons and objects is a demand-driven global venture that has market potential for: commercial sex, cheap labour, terrorism, and drug-related crimes. Most African States, especially Nigeria, have been reputed as hardliners in encouraging these illicit trends. Chief among the motivating factors include: domestic insecurity, political instability, economic recession, and institutional failure, etc. Amongst other instigating factors however, this paper takes a cursory look at the relationship between the twin crime of trans-border migration crises and human trafficking in Nigeria, and the attendant political economic implications on the Nigerian polity. Data relied on are largely gotten from secondary sources. The paper employs the neoclassical political economic theory of migration. Findings from conceptual and theoretical reviews of literatures show that the incentive for human trafficking and migration-related offences is not only profit driven but also a fall-out from institutional failure. The paper recommends a taut border security, which can disallow border-related crimes like drug and human trafficking. The paper also sues for people-oriented leadership that will eschew illicit crimes such as the above. ItemThe migration policy of Armenia(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Gomółka, KrystynaThe aim of this study is to describe the legal bases of the migration policy of Armenia and its practical implementation in 1995-2013. The author examined the international and national documents that provide the legal bases of Armenia’s migration policy, as well as the balance between departures and arrivals in the period 1995-2013, Armenian citizens’ reasons for emigrating and the occupations of emigrants. The study was based on the following research methods: content, system and quantitative analysis. The results of the analyses performed indicate that the objectives of Armenia’s migration policy were not completely fulfilled. Between 1995 and 2013, the number of emigrants declined, but Armenia’s overall migration balance was negative. The majority of those leaving the country went to Russia, followed by the other states of the CIS. ItemNegotiations with Terrorist Organizations for the Release of Abductees: Between Declarations and Practice. The Israeli Case(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Nagar, Nir BarkanFor decades, democratic countries have dealt with terrorist attacks carried out for the purpose of negotiations, which is the preferred modus operandi for some terrorist organizations. To what extent can a democratic regime effectively combat this abominable act while preserving a liberal or democratic character? Furthermore, these cases have become one of the most complicated dilemmas in both domestic and foreign policy. The prevalent opinion is that it is not possible to avoid meeting some of the demands of these terrorists. A government may even consent to paying a heavy price, so as to end the situation sooner. Media coverage influences this price, as extensive coverage of the terrorist attacks benefits the terrorists and thus increases their bargaining power. In contrast to the declarations of Israeli leaders in negotiations in cases of abduction, Israel has adopted a very flexible approach and is not interested in adopting the rigid approach of refusal to negotiate. The position of the opponents to negotiations with terrorist organizations is that the very negotiations with terrorist organizations legitimize them and the terrorist attacks, thus devaluing claims that terrorism is not a legitimate means of achieving one’s aims, and prevents the use of force in these situations. When all the prisoner exchange deals by the State of Israel are examined, approximately 7,500 terrorists have been released in the framework of the different deals, including terrorists with blood on their hands, in return for 14 living soldiers and civilians and 6 bodies of soldiers. A total of 1,027 terrorists were released in the Shalit deal alone. ItemThe EU engagement in democracy promotion in post-Soviet Central Asia: the case study of the Kyrgyz Republic - prospects and challenges(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Kainazarov, BaktybekWhen Soviet Union collapsed, there were different hypothesis regarding democratic reforms and political system changes in Kyrgyzstan. It was believed that Kyrgyzstan would develop its independent policy and democratic governance. Since early 1990s European countries through OSCE, and later through the EU launched development projects have been playing central role in democracy promotion and civil society development in Central Asia. At the same time, as analysis show geopolitical interests of neighboring powerful states such as Russia and China increased in the region, which resulted the creation of regional institutions such as Shanhai Cooperation Organization (SCO), Collective Security Organization (CSO), Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) and Silk Road Belt Initiative (SRBI). While being the fully-fledged member of China and Russia led regional institutions, Kyrgyzstan is under heavy political and economic influence. Besides, human rights situation in Kyrgyzstan like in other Central Asian countries has been deteriorating for last few years. Thus, the research paper focuses on interplay between Russia and China for geopolitical dominance in the region, including how it negatively influences for political volatility, civil society suppression and deterioration of human rights issues. Paper equally analyzes European countries engagement in human rights and democracy promotion in Kyrgyzstan. The research considers important to analyze the EU strategy in democratic reforms in Central Asia and to investigate why it matters for the EU. ItemIncreasing the Effectiveness of EU Education Assistance in Uzbekistan. Revising the EU Strategy in Light of the New Regime(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2018) Peyrouse, SebastienThe European Union has identified education in Central Asia as a key area of cooperation. However, the EU’s engagement in this area, which has faced considerable difficulties since the fall of the Soviet Union, has so far not had the desired impact. Based on a case study of Uzbekistan, I argue in this article that the EU should revise its strategy by adopting a more targeted approach, consistent with the longer-term funding it is able to commit to Central Asia and better tailored to the local social context through strong engagement with local stakeholders. Instead of imposing broad concepts designed in Brussels - which have generally not been fully accepted or implemented by local political authorities - this new approach would involve setting up specific projects with local input, such as the opening of campuses of European universities, providing financial and logistical support for school infrastructure, and increasing the involvement of potential employers. With local ownership, EU education assistance will allow a new generation in Uzbekistan to breathe life into long-term reforms by drawing on the European concepts of their instruction, rather than viewing them as imposed from outside.