Item«Anna Karénine» travestie ou une mise en abyme transtextuelle. Sur quelques pratiques transtextuelles dans la prose d ’Albert Cohen(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Sadkowski, PiotrTranstextuality is the first principle o f Albert Cohen’s writing. The author of this paper is trying to reveal the function on the combination of two aspects of transtextuality (external and internal) in generating multiple interpretations of Cohen’s novels. To illustrate this problem the author presents one of the narrative strategies in Albert Cohen’s prose: “transtextual mise en abyme”, applied to Tolstoy’s novel Anna Karenina. This notion refers to the combined effect of transtextual processes (from implicit mention to allusion to travesty) and mise en abyme. The fiction of Anna Karenina transformed by one of Cohen’s heroes, Mangeclous in the eponym novel and in Les Valeureux, is a travesty. Nevertheless if the reader examines this process in an intratextual perspective, he realizes that this transformation is at the same time, because in the travesty of Tolstoy Cohen’s own text (Belle du Seigneur) is mirrored. Thus Karenina’s story in Mangeclous and Les Valeureux is a prolepsis of the fiction of Belle du Seigneur. ItemAl torno de los conceptos del realismo mágico y lo real maravilloso - intento de diferenciación(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Charchalis, WojciechThe article presents some notes about the nature of the magic realism that can become useful to formulate a homogeneous definition of the concept. The basic differences between the concepts of magic realism and “lo real maravilloso” of Alejo Carpentier are also exposed. Those terms are frequently erroneously equalled by the critics which generates a terminological confusion that should be cleared. The magic realism is presented as an aesthetic term whereas “lo real maravilloso” is considered as an ontological term, which constitutes the main difference between them. ItemQuelques exemples d’analyse des corpus en vue de la traduction(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Vetulani, GrażynaIntensive works by (first) computer scientists and (then) linguists in order to obtain Automatic Translation Systems started already in the late 40-ties. Since that time many things have changed in the field of tools and methodologies like for example creation of basic electronic resources as corpora and dictionaries or the lexicon-grammar framework. This paper presents some language engineering tools recently developed (with participation of the Author) for Polish and claims their interest for the Translation Community. ItemLe sens et l'information à transmettre dans la traduction des messages verbo-visuels(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Tomaszkiewicz, TeresaThis article focusses on the search for a solution to problems of translation of texts of a verbal-visual character. Despite appearance various images occurring in these texts are not automatically understood by a foreign recipient since they undergo a certain codification, characteristic of every culture individually. In the meantime the sense of these verbal-visual tramsmissions is a result of various relations into which enter with each other both semiotic elements (parallel, supplementing and interpretative meaning, equivalence and contradiction). The author tries to answer the question about the way in which the translator of this type of texts may render their sense and transmit information contained in them for the use of a foreign recipient. ItemFacteurs discoursifs dans I'amplification du texte pendant la traduction(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Szeflińska-Karkowska, MagdalenaThis article discusses the role of discourse’s factors in amplification in the process of translation from the French language to the Polish language. Role of discourse’s factors is discussed from the perspective of comprehension which is examined with regard to syntactic and semantic components of the text. A detailed analysis of the cognitive process involved in translation is presented on the basis of examples from literary texts. ItemAnalyse conversationnelle et didactique de la traduction(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Stefanink, BerndThe analysis of conversations held by two or more students negotiating a joint version of a translation has an important didactic value. It enables the teacher to work on the translational behavior of the students instead of merely limiting her/his activity to the correction of diverse grammar and semantic mistakes. The confrontation with their own translation procedures heightens the students’ awareness of what it really means to translate. In many cases it leads to a catharsis which in turn motivates the students to study the different factors involved in the translation process. On a larger scale, conversational analysis provides the teacher with a sound basis on which to structure a translation course and organize a syllabus. ItemMédiation et mise en scène de Vinformation dans le discours de vulgarization scientifique(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Sabban, AnnetteThe present study examines texts about computer viruses from French, Spanish and German popular scientific journals. The first part of the paper shows how these texts make systematic use of concepts and expressions drawn from other domains of discourse. The second part of the paper focusses on a subgroup of the linguistic means employed, i.e. metaphorical expressions, and discusses their functions in the texts under discussion. These functions can be assigned to two groups, in that they either mediate new information or make the message more effective on the rhetorical level. The paper concludes with a discussion of some writer strategies used for activating other semantic domains as a prerequisite for achieving a particular rhetorical effect. ItemLe discours et ses situations(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Rey-Debove, JosetteThis paper aims to situate the various areas of discourse analysis with respect to general typological or intersecting characteristics, and to èxtend our apprehension of «true meaning» as far as possible. It suggests that unacceptable phrases and paralinguistic elements can be included in semantics, and that non-spontaneous cited or transcribed discourse can be considered alongside spontaneous oral and written discourse. A distinction is made between the «producer» (who is «responsible») and the «emitter»; between the «addressee» (who is deliberately targeted) and the «receiver». The emitter is often citing a third party, while the addressee is often non-specific or accidental. Provision is made for conflictual relationships between speakers (claiming the right to speak in public) and messages with pseudo addressees, which give the function of expression priority over the function of communication. The phatic function merely maintains a relationship between speakers which is detrimental to meaning, just as violence may ensue when intercomprehension breaks down. ItemLa représentation du discours de Gustave Flaubert dans une étude de Ferdinand Brunetière(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Dutka, AnnaThe analysis concerns the means of representation of the discourse of G. Flaubert in the study of F. Brunetière which has as its aim the assessment o f this writer on the basis of his works. The categories which have been considered are: representation of the other discourse (reported speech, autonymic modalisation) and the borrowing of segments which serve to discuss the procedures of writing. We have observed the presence of many opaque and clouding formulations. To a large degree the critic bases his judgements on the words and opinions of the writer himself. In particular cases, Flaubert as a source becomes cospeaker and is identified as «the poet». ItemL’intraculturel et la traduction(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Potok-Nycz, Magda; Sypnicki, JózefThe article takes up the subject of stereotypes within the contractive linguistics and translation area. The authors investigate the presence of cultural and national differences in language systems demonstrating that the fixed set ideas about particular tlings are compactly built in linguistic expressions. The requisites of culture are examined in word components, conceptual models and means of categorization. The selected examples go to prove the individual character of the world representation within different cultures. Other expressions seem to converge or because of language acquisitions (translations) or due to the identical experiences that create the particular forms of understanding the world. In the second part of the article the cultural stereotype is situated in the translation frame. Several translation strategies are proposed. The conclusion, nevertheless, reveals that the stereotypes belong to the linguistic system and, unlike the sense, can be departed from it. Unless the cultural experience of different linguistic communities converges, the stereotypes are untranslatable. The commented patterns of translation procedures demonstrate that the cultural stereotypes do not cross the language barriers in the process of translation. ItemLas divergencias en el régimen verbal del objeto directo e indirecto en polaco y en castellano(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Pawlik, JanuszThe divergence in the use of noun objects required by certain verbs in both languages is obvious. The problem, however, becomes difficult to solve, because in Spanish it is sometimes impossible to tell the difference between the direct and indirect object in a verb group. Unlike other Romance languages, the preposition ‘a’ is often both the mark of accusative and dative forms. In addition, the defective pronoun forms replacing noun objects are widespread in Spain (leísmo, laísmo) and create confusion in speakers’ minds. In this paper, we will try to find out the real syntactic value of some Spanish objects, usually mistaken by Polish learners of Spanish, and to draw up a list of those verbs whose objects don’t agree in both languages. ItemAspects socio- et psycholinguistiques de la modélisation de la compréhension des textes de la vie quotidienne: fait divers et publicité(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Miczka, EwaThe author’s aim is to study understanding of text as process, within text linguistics, with consideration of the main factors which condition it. The author concentrates her attention mainly on the phenomenon of the reader’s constant referring to the text which he interprets to the information previously acquired by him. ItemL’isotopie complexe comme défi traductologique(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Landheer, RonaldIntentional ambiguities and complex textual isotopies may be considered as essential and deliberate communicative strategies in any discourse, and as such they demand specific translational strategies. In spite of rather common apriorisms about their alleged ‘untranslatability’, mainly based on interlingual asymmetry, entirely satisfying translations are quite often possible, if one bears in mind that: a) very striking interlingual parallelisms e.g. in conceptual metaphorical and metonymical shifts are rather widespread; b) isotopies - although often entailing certain types of wordplay - always include semantic textual coherence (even if so in a plurivalent manner) to be rendered anyway; and finally, c) the notion of (un)translatability itself should not be taken in a too restrictive way. Recent developments in translation theory, as well as in linguistics and literary criticism throw new light on an old problem. ItemSystèmes écrivants et répartition des rôles interactionnels(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Krafft, Ulrich; Dausendschon-Gay, UlrichIn cooperative writing two or more interacting persons work together to write a common text. After several case studies with unplanned writing interactions, in an experiment we asked 17 dyads to compose a recipe for mousse au chocolat. In the first part of the essay we show that one can describe the cooperating dyads as writing systems with specific properties, the interacting persons as agents of the system. After that we ask how far the writing system determines the activities of its agents and to what extent the distribution of activities, conversely, follows the wishes and preferences of those interacting. We also examine whether one can speak of a “writing style” of the writers working together in the writing system. ItemSpis treści(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) ItemRepérages discursifs et traduction(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Guillemin-Flescher, JacquelineIn the article the- problem of differences between texts in French and English is discussed in relative clauses, indicative (deictic) expressions and dislocations. It appears that no grammatical restrictions determine the use of one or another form in both languages discussed here. These are restrictions which should be considered on another level, namely, on the level of various ways of placing points of reference in French as related to the sender of the communication, and in English as related to its receiver. ItemVocabulario y estereotipos publicitarios en los anuncios de la prensa española actual(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Głowicka, MonikaThe author of this article analyses the functioning of stereotypes in Spanish press advertisements, payingspecial attention to the role which they play in this kind of texts. What is meant mainly is to show how advertisements try to modiify the consumer’s behaviour and to impose on him a new set of values which is in the interest of producers. ItemDécoder à travers les âges: traduction polonaise des textes d’ancien français(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Giermak-Zielińska, TeresaThe main problem discussed is how a contemporary Polish reader is supposed to receive a translation of a medieval text. The traditional choice between a philological translation and a stylistically enhanced text is not relevant according to the E. Nida’s theory of the dynamic equivalence. In his translation theory, special emphasis is given to the achievement of good readability. Some solutions resulting from author's practical experiences are proposed. ItemRésistance des corpus longs et déplacements de la recherche: l’exemple de la rédaction conversationnelle(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) De Gaulmyn, Marie-MadeleineIn this article the author presents an analysis of empirical material which consists of a recording of interaction between two female students as they edit together a written text on the subject given them. Various characteristics of these students (nationality, social status, upbringing, their past school experiences) cause conflicts which have not been predicted by the researcher and which influence the final form of the text being edited. ItemAlbert Camus, écrivain français d’Algérie(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2000) Stępniak, MariaThis study is about the Algerianity of Albert Camus, the greatest French writer of Algeria. The topic tackled has three aspects: Algeria as source of work, Camus’s Algerian political philosophy and the deterioration of his relationships with the native Algerian writers. The authoress leads to the following thesis: Albert Camus inscribes himself into the history of North African literature at the decline of the colonial age. His work is situated between a French colonial literature and one of the Algerians, founders of a national literature. Anticolonialist but opposed to the independence of Algeria, Albert Camus was overtaken by the revolution in motion. Camus’s double identity within the context of the Algerian war condemned him to becoming a stranger in his two countries. The drama of his separation fiom the Mother Algeria turned to tragedy with his premature and absurd death. The message of Albert Camus, an agnostic and moralist writer, remains alive. The author of The insurgent man encourages to overtake the absurdity of the human condition by man’s own strengths. Albert Camus, the Algerian sings the wedding of the man and the nature. Great artist, he continues to fascinate generations of readers with his magic word. For some of them, it’s because of its art that the work of Albert Camus remains.